Associations between the use of snus (moist tobacco) or electronic cigarettes and tobacco smoking

A systematic review

Summary and main findings

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identifies and presents available scientific evidence to support policy and decision making, including the development of national guidelines, at other government agencies. In consultation with professional experts, SBU staff generates supporting documentation to address the various questions that have been posed.

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Main findings

  • Experimentation with snus or e-cigarettes may be a predictor for subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking. The certainty of evidence was higher for e-cigarette data than for snus.
  • Due to scarce material for snus, and very heterogenous results in studies of e-cigarettes, we could not find quality evidence for associations between either use of snus or use of e-cigarettes, and a change in smoking behaviour among individuals using smoking tobacco.

Background

According to a report from The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) on tobacco habits in Sweden 2003–2018, about a quarter of the Swedish population use tobacco, either daily or occasionally [1]. Snus is more commonly used by men, where 25% reported having used snus in the previous month. The corresponding figure for women is 6%. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are used by 1 to 2% of the adult population, and among second year high school students, 6% state that they have used e-cigarettes in the past month [2,3]. Like snus, e-cigarettes are more commonly used by men.

This systematic review investigates possible associations between using snus or e-cigarettes, and smoking tobacco. Subgroups of men, women, children <18 yrs., and adults were analysed. This field of research is rapidly expanding, when it comes to e-cigarettes, while the number of studies about snus is scarce. This systematic review provides a current review of the research.

Aim

The aim of this systematic review is to assess possible associations between snus or e-cigarette use, and subsequent change in cigarette smoking behaviour (initiation of smoking/quit smoking/increased smoking /decreased smoking) at follow up.

The two main review questions:

  1. Is ever use of snus or e-cigarettes a predictor for later initiation of cigarette smoking, among individuals that do not smoke at the beginning of the study period.
  2. Is there evidence for associations between use of snus or use of e-cigarettes, and a change in smoking behaviour, measured as increase, decrease or quitting, among people smoking tobacco at the beginning of the study period.

Method

The literature was evaluated using a priori established protocols, and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The certainty of evidence was assessed with GRADE [4,5,6,7], as very low (⊕◯◯◯), low (⊕⊕◯◯), moderate (⊕⊕⊕◯) or high (⊕⊕⊕⊕).

Inclusion criteria

The study question formulated according to the PICO format:

Population*

  • Research question 1: General population samples of non-smokers, any age.
  • Research question 2: General population samples of smokers, any age.

Intervention/Exposure

Self-reported current or ever use of snus or e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine

Comparison

Self-reported non-use of snus or e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, all through the study period.

Outcome

  • Research question 1: Self-reported ever or current use of combustible tobacco products at follow up.
  • Research question 2: Self-reported non-use, non-use for at least 30 days, increased use or decreased use of combustible tobacco products at follow up.

For research questions about snus, only studies investigating individuals living in the Nordic countries were included.

Study design

Studies reporting empirical results, with either longitudinal observational design with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up, or Randomised Control Studies (RCT); including general population samples; allowing for the comparison between users and non-users of snus or e-cigarettes.

Language

English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish

Search period

From 1998 to 2019. Final search November 11, 2019.

Databases searched

PubMed incl. Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed Health, NICE evidence search, PROSPERO, CRD, and PsycInfo

Client/patient involvement

No

Results

Literature search

There are 73 primary research articles included in the different analyses of this systematic review (Figur 1). Most of them are investigating research questions about e-cigarettes. Eight are investigating snus.

 

Figure 1 Flow chart.

Summary of results

An overview and summary of the main results is presented in Table 1 and 2.

Snus

It is possible that experimentation with snus may be a predictor for later initiation of cigarette smoking (certainty of evidence ⊕⊕◯◯). However, association between experimentation with snus and current use of cigarettes was not found (certainty of evidence ⊕◯◯◯).

Due to scarce material it was not possible to draw any conclusions about associations between use of snus, and quitting smoking (certainty of evidence ⊕◯◯◯), or between use of snus and increased smoking (certainty of evidence ⊕◯◯◯). With the present inclusion criteria, no studies investigating associations between use of snus and quitting smoking for at least 30 days, or between use of snus and decreased smoking, were found.

E-cigarettes

It is probable that experimentation with e-cigarettes may be a predictor for later initiation of cigarette smoking (certainty of evidence ⊕⊕⊕◯). The certainty of evidence was higher among young individuals (<18 years) (certainty of evidence ⊕⊕⊕◯) but could also be found among adults (certainty of evidence ⊕⊕◯◯). Association between experimentation with e-cigarettes and current use of cigarettes was also found (certainty of evidence ⊕⊕⊕◯).

Due to very variable results in the included studies that investigated e-cigarettes and changes in smoking behaviour, it was not possible to draw any conclusions about possible associations between e-cigarettes and quit smoking, quit smoking for at least 30 days, decreased smoking or increased smoking (certainty of evidence for all four outcomes ⊕◯◯◯).

Table 1 Overview of main findings. The direction of association is shown if the certainty of evidence according to GRADE was (⊕⊕◯◯) or higher. Arrow pointing upwards: association between snus or e-cigarettes and a higher incidence of the outcome. Arrow pointing downwards: association between snus or e-cigarettes and a lower incidence of the outcome.

Outcomes that are non-relevant to a specific research question are denoted by NA.

Table 1 Overview of main findings.

Table 2 Summary of main findings.

For lager image, click on the image.

Screenshot of table 2 summary of main findins

Discussion

This systematic review analyses possible associations between snus, e-cigarettes and the use of smoking tobacco in contexts transferable to Swedish conditions and to the population in general. For snus, only studies investigating use of snus in the Nordic countries are included. Studies on e-cigarettes have been included regardless of e-cigarette type or country of origin. No studies on e-cigarettes conducted in a Nordic context were found.

Our results show that there may be an association between using snus or e-cigarettes and later initiation of tobacco smoking. The certainty of evidence was higher for e-cigarette data than for snus.

It was however not possible to assess whether there is an association between use of snus or use of e-cigarettes and changed smoking habits among individuals using smoking tobacco. In the case of snus, this was due to the low number of primary studies investigating the possible association between snus and changes in smoking behaviour. In the case of e-cigarettes, it was due to very diverse results in the different primary studies included in the analyses. However, both the ongoing intensive research on e-cigarettes, and new studies about snus may change the current state of knowledge.

Based on the results of this systematic review, it is not possible to determine whether the associations found in the material are causal, or mainly statistical relationships. In most of the included studies, it is possible that confounders affect the outcome. There may be underlying differences between the comparison groups that affect both the use of snus or e-cigarettes and the use of smoking tobacco. We have therefore not assessed the strength of the associations found, but only if there is an association or not. A non-significant result means that an association could not be statistically confirmed. It should not be interpreted as an evidence of no association. Based on the results of the systematic review, it is not possible to determine what the smoking habits of the population would have looked like if snus or e-cigarettes had not been on the market.

The purpose of this project has been to extract new knowledge. The report does not contain any proposals for changes in regulations or application of practice.

Project group

Experts

  • Louise Adermark, Associate Professor, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Sweden
  • Maria Rosaria Galanti, Professor, Karolinska Institute, Sweden
  • Hans Gilljam, Professor, Karolinska Institute, Sweden
  • Linnéa Hedman, Associate Professor, Umeå University, Sweden

SBU

  • Charlotta Ryk, Project Manager
  • Elisabeth Gustafsson, Project Administrator
  • Martin Norman, Assistant Project Manager (from September 2019)
  • Hanna Olofsson, Information Specialist
  • Karin Stenström, Assistant Project Manager (until June 2019)
  • Mikael Nilsson, Head of Department

External reviewers

  • Charlotta Holm Pisinger, Professor, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Karl Erik Lund, Professor, Norweigan Institute of Public Health, NIPH Norway
  • Arja Rimpelä, Professor, Tampere University, School of Health Sciences, Finland

References

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Full report in Swedish

The full report in Swedish "Samband mellan snus, e-cigaretter och tobaksrökning"

Published: 6/15/2020 Report no: 312 Registration no: SBU 2018/431 https://www.sbu.se/312e

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Search strategies

PsycINFO via EBSCO 11 November 2019
Title: E-cigarettes, snuff & tobacco smoking
Search terms  Items found
The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.

AB = Abstract; AU = Author; DE = Term from the thesaurus; MH = Exact Subject Heading from CINAHL Subject Headings; MM = Major Concept; TI = Title; TX = All Text. Performs a keyword search of all the database's searchable fields; ZC = Methodology Index; * = Truncation; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; N = Near Operator (N) finds the words if they are a maximum of x words apart from one another, regardless of the order in which they appear; W = Within Operator (W) finds the words if they are within x words of one another, in the order in which you entered them
Electronic cigarettes
1. DE "Electronic Cigarettes" 1 198
2. TX(E-Cig* OR "electronic cig*" OR "e-cig" OR "electronic nicotine" OR "electronic vapour" OR "electronic vapor" OR e-vapour OR e-vapor OR "vaporized nicotine" OR "vaporised nicotine" OR vape OR vaping OR vaper OR ((vapor OR vapour OR vaporizer OR vaporiser) AND (nicotine OR electronic))) 2 543
3. 1 OR 2 2 543
Snuff
4. DE "Smokeless Tobacco" 817
5. TX((snus OR snuff) OR ("smokeless tobacco" OR "swedish tobacco*" OR "smokeless tobacco*" OR "moist tobacco*" OR "oral tobacco*" OR "leaf tobacco*" OR "dip tobacco*") AND (scandinavia* OR sweden* OR swedish OR norway* OR norwegian* OR finland* OR finnish* OR denmark* OR Danish OR Iceland* OR nordic)) 495
6. 4 OR 5 1 070
Smoking
7. DE "Tobacco Smoking" OR DE "Nicotine Withdrawal" OR DE "Smoking Cessation" 35 448
8. TX(cigarillo OR cigarillos OR cigarr OR cigars OR ((Combust* OR conventional OR traditional) W3 (cigarette*)) OR dokha* OR "dual use*" OR hookah OR pipe OR smoke OR smoker OR smoking OR "tobacco cigarette" OR "tobacco cigarettes" OR tobacco OR "traditional cigarette" OR "traditional cigarettes" OR "water pipe") 67 845
9. 7 OR 8 67 918
Combined sets & limits
10. 3 AND 9 1 748
11. 6 AND 9 1 035
12. 10 OR 11 2 658
13. 12 NOT ((DE "Animals" OR DE "Rodents") 2 632
Final result
14. 13 AND Limiters - Published Date: 19900101-; Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal, Peer-Reviewed Status-Unknown; Language: Danish, English, Norwegian, Swedish 2 484

 

Cochrane Library via Wiley 11 November 2019 (CDSR)
Title: E-cigarettes, snuff & tobacco smoking
The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.; :au = Author; MeSH = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, including terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; this term only = Does not include terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; :ti = title; :ab = abstract; :kw = keyword; * = Truncation; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; CDSR = Cochrane Database of Systematic Review; Cochrane Protocols = protocols of systematic reviews registered in Cochrane Library; CENTRAL = Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, “trials”
Search terms  Items found
Electronic cigarettes
1. [mh "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems"] OR [mh "Vaping"] 88
2. ("E-Cigarette" OR "E-Cigarettes" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "e-cig" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "electronic nicotine device" OR "electronic nicotine devices" OR "electronic vapour product" OR e-vapour OR "vaporized nicotine" OR vape OR vaping OR vaper OR vapor):ti,ab 1 139
3. 1 OR 2 1 146
Snuff
4. [mh "Tobacco, Smokeless"] 140
5. (snus OR snuff):ti,ab OR ("smokeless tobacco" OR "swedish tobacco*" OR "smokeless tobacco*" OR "moist tobacco*" OR "oral tobacco*" OR "leaf tobacco*" OR "dip tobacco*") AND ([mh Scandinavia] OR scandinavia* OR [mh Sweden] OR (sweden* or swedish) OR [mh Norway] OR (norway* or norwegian*) OR [mh finland] OR (finland* or finnish*) OR [mh Denmark] OR (denmark* or danish) OR [mh Iceland] OR iceland* OR nordic*) 445
6. 4 OR 5 463
Smoking
7. [mh smoking] OR [mh "pipe smoking"] OR [mh "water pipe smoking"] OR [mh "smoking reduction"] OR [mh "tobacco smoking"] OR [mh "tobacco use disorder"] OR [mh "smoking cessation"] OR [mh "smoking prevention"] 5 559
8. (Cigarillo OR Cigarillos OR Cigarr OR Cigars OR "combustible tobacco" OR "combustible cigarette" OR "combustible cigarettes" OR "conventional cigarettes" OR "conventional cigarette" OR Dokha* OR "dual user*" OR hookah OR pipe OR smoke OR smoker OR smoking OR "tobacco cigarette" OR "tobacco cigarettes" OR tobacco OR "traditional cigarette" OR "traditional cigarettes" OR "water pipe"):ti,ab 29 691
9. 7 OR 8 30 001
Combined sets
10. 3 AND 9 21
11. 6 AND 9 522
Final result
12. 10 OR 11 CDSR/4

 

Embase via Elsevier 11 November 2019
Title: E-cigarettes, snuff & tobacco smoking
The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.; /de = Term from the EMTREE controlled vocabulary; /exp = Includes terms found below this term in the EMTREE hierarchy; /mj = Major Topic; :ab = Abstract; :au = Author; :ti = Article Title; :ti,ab = Title or abstract; * = Truncation
' ' = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; NEAR/n = Requests terms that are within 'n' words of each other in either direction; NEXT/n = Requests terms that are within 'n' words of each other in the order specified
Search terms Items found
Electronic cigarettes
1. 'electronic cigarette'/de OR 'vaping'/de 4 531
2. ("E-Cig*" OR "electr* cigar*" OR "electronic nicotine" OR "electronic vapour product" OR "electronic vapor product" OR (ENDS NEAR/3 nicotine) OR ecigg or ecigarette* OR e-vapour OR e-vapor OR "vaporized nicotine" OR "vaporised nicotine" OR vape OR vaping OR vaper OR vapers):ti,ab OR ((vapor:ti,ab OR vapour:ti,ab OR vaporizer:ti,ab OR vaporiser:ti,ab) AND nicotine:ti,ab) 4 438
3. 1 OR 2 5 062
Snuff
4. 'snus'/de 144
5. snus:ti,ab 398
  (snuff:ti,ab OR 'tobacco snuff'/de OR 'smokeless tobacco'/de OR "smokeless tobacco":ti,ab OR "swedish tobacco*":ti,ab OR "smokeless tobacco*":ti,ab OR "moist tobacco*":ti,ab OR "oral tobacco*":ti,ab OR "leaf tobacco*":ti,ab OR "dip tobacco*":ti,ab) AND ('Scandinavia'/de OR 'Denmark'/de OR 'Finland'/exp OR 'Iceland'/de OR 'Norway'/exp OR 'Sweden'/de OR Scandinavia*:ti,ab,ca OR Sweden:ti,ab,ca OR Swedish:ti,ab,ca OR Norway:ti,ab,ca OR Norwegian*:ti,ab,ca OR finland*:ti,ab,ca OR finnish*:ti,ab,ca OR Denmark:ti,ab,ca OR Danish:ti,ab,ca OR Iceland*:ti,ab,ca OR Nordic*:ti,ab,ca) 551
7. 4 OR 5 OR 6 OR 7 765
Smoking
8. 'smoking'/de OR 'adolescent smoking'/exp OR 'cigar smoking'/exp OR 'cigarette smoking'/exp OR 'pipe smoking'/de OR 'parental smoking'/exp OR 'smoking habit'/exp OR 'smoking cessation'/de OR 'smoking reduction'/de OR 'tobacco'/de OR 'tobacco dependence'/de OR 'tobacco smoke'/de OR 'water pipe'/de 373 309
9. (cigarillo OR cigarillos OR cigarr OR cigars OR ((Combustible OR conventional) NEAR/3 (cigarette*)) OR dokha* OR "dual user*" OR hookah OR smoke OR smoker OR smoking OR tobacco OR "traditional cigarette" OR "traditional cigarettes" OR "water pipe"):ti,ab 333 456
10. 8 OR 9 447 034
Combined sets
11. 3 AND 10 4 383
12. 7 AND 10 715
13. 11 OR 12 5 001
14. 13 NOT (('animal'/exp OR 'nonhuman'/exp) NOT 'human'/exp) 4 743
Final result
15. 14 NOT ('note'/it OR [conference abstract]/lim OR [conference paper]/lim OR [conference review]/lim OR [short survey]/lim) AND [embase]/lim AND ([danish]/lim OR [english]/lim OR [norwegian]/lim OR [swedish]/lim) AND [1990-2019]/py  

 

Medline via OvidSP 11 November 2019
Title: E-cigarettes, snuff & tobacco smoking
The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.; .ab. = Abstract; .ab,ti. = Abstract or title; .af. = All fields; Exp = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, including terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; .sh. = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary; .ti. = Title; / = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, but does not include terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; * = Focus (if found in front of a MeSH-term); * or $ = Truncation (if found at the end of a free text term)
.mp = text, heading word, subject area node, title; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; ADJn = positional operator that lets you retrieve records that contain your terms (in any order) within a specified number (n) of words of each other
Search terms Items found
Electronic cigarettes
1. "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems"/ OR "Vaping"/ 2 876
2. ("E-Cigarette" OR "E-Cigarettes" OR "electr* cigar*" OR "e-cig*" OR "electronic nicotine" OR "electronic vapour product" OR (ENDS adj3 nicotine) OR ecigg* or ecigarette* OR e-vapour OR e-vapor OR "vaporized nicotine" OR "vaporised nicotine" OR vape OR vaping OR vaper OR vapers).ti,ab 4 857
3. (vapor OR vapour OR vaporizer OR vaporiser).ti,ab 44 656
4. limit 3 to "pubmed not medline" 19 299
5. 1 OR 2 OR 4 24 367
Snuff
6. "Tobacco, Smokeless"/ 3 565
7. (snus OR snuff).ti,ab OR ("smokeless tobacco" OR "swedish tobacco*" OR "smokeless tobacco*" OR "moist tobacco*" OR "oral tobacco*" OR "leaf tobacco*" OR "dip tobacco*") AND (scandinavia/ OR scandinavia*.tw. OR sweden/ OR (sweden* or swedish).tw. OR norway/ OR (norway* or norwegian*).tw. OR finland/ OR (finland* or finnish*).tw. OR denmark/ OR (denmark* or danish).tw. OR iceland/ OR iceland*.tw. OR nordic.tw.) 591
8. 6 OR 7 3 739
Tobacco smoking
9. smoking/ or pipe smoking/ or water pipe smoking/ or smoking reduction/ or exp "tobacco smoking"/ OR "tobacco use disorder"/ OR "smoking Cessation"/ OR "smoking Prevention"/ OR tobacco products/ OR Tobacco, Waterpipe/ 162 064
10. (Cigarillo OR Cigarillos OR Cigarr OR Cigars OR ((Combustible OR conventional OR traditional) ADJ3 (cigarette*)) OR Dokha* OR "dual user*" OR hookah OR pipe OR smoke OR smoker OR smoking OR "tobacco cigarette" OR "tobacco cigarettes" OR tobacco OR "water pipe").ti,ab 298 349
11. 9 OR 10 340 609
Combined sets and limits
12. 5 AND 11 4 188
13. 8 AND 11 3 408
14. 12 OR 13 7 467
15. 14 NOT ("Animals"/ NOT "Humans"/) 7 296
16. 15 NOT (editorial/ OR exp consensus development conference/) 7 091
Final result
17. 16 limited to (yr="1990 -Current" and (danish or english or norwegian or swedish)) 6 476

 

Scopus via Elsevier 11 November 2019
Title: E-cigarettes, snuff & tobacco smoking
The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.; TITLE-ABS-KEY = Title or abstract or keywords; ALL = All fields; PRE/n = "precedes by". The first term in the search must precede the second by a specified number of terms (n); W/n = "within". The terms in the search must be within a specified number of terms (n) in any order; * = Truncation
“ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; LIMIT-TO ( SRCTYPE , "j" = Limit to source type journal; LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "ar" = Limit to document type article; LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "re" = Limit to document type review; AB = Abstract; AF = Author affiliation; All = Performs a keyword search in most of the database's searchable fields, except full text; AU = Author; MAINSUBJECT = Term from the thesaurus; TI = Title; * = Truncation; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase? = Wildcard, used to replace any single character either inside or at the right end of a word
Search terms Items found
Electronic cigarettes
1. TITLE-ABS-KEY ("E-Cigarette" OR "E-Cigarettes" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "e-cig" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "electronic nicotine device" OR "electronic nicotine devices" OR (electronic PRE/1 vapo*) OR e-vapour OR e-vapor OR "vaporized nicotine" OR "vaporised nicotine" OR vape OR vaping OR vaper) 6 183
Snuff
2. TITLE-ABS-KEY ((snus OR snuff) OR ("smokeless tobacco" OR "swedish tobacco" OR "smokeless tobacco" OR "moist tobacco" OR "oral tobacco" OR "leaf tobacco" OR "dip tobacco") AND (scandinavia* OR sweden* OR swedish OR norway* OR norwegian* OR finland* OR finnish* OR denmark* OR Danish OR Iceland* OR nordic)) 721
Smoking
3. TITLE-ABS-KEY (cigarillo OR cigarillos OR cigarr OR cigars OR "combustible tobacco" OR "combusted tobacco" OR "combustible cigarette" OR "combustible cigarettes" OR "conventional cigarettes" OR "conventional cigarette" OR dokha* OR "dual user" OR "dual users" OR hookah OR pipe OR smoke OR smoker OR smoking OR "tobacco cigarette" OR "tobacco cigarettes" OR tobacco OR "traditional cigarette" OR "traditional cigarettes" OR "water pipe") 779 157
Combined sets & limits
4. 1 AND 3 5 224
5. 2 AND 3 704
6. 4 OR 5 5 893
7. 6 AND ( LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2020 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2019 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2018 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2017 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2016 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2015 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2014 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2013 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2012 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2011 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2010 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2009 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2008 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2007 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2006 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2005 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2004 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2003 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2002 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2001 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2000 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1999 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1998 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1997 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1996 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1995 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1994 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1993 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1992 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1991 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 1990 ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "ar" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "re" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( SRCTYPE , "j" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( EXACTKEYWORD , "Human" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( EXACTKEYWORD , "Humans" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE , "English" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE , "Swedish" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE , "Norwegian" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE , "Danish" ) ) 3 477
Final result
8. #9 AND NOT INDEX(medline) 1 648

Excluded articles

1. Only one reason for exclusion is listed per study.
Reference Exklusionsorsak/ Reason for exclusion1
Adriaens K., Van Gucht D., Declerck P., Baeyens F. Effectiveness of the electronic cigarette: An eight-week Flemish study with six-month follow-up on smoking reduction, craving and experienced benefits and complaints. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2014;11:1122048. Study duration
Agaku I. T., Singh T., Jones S. E., King B. A., Jamal A., Neff L., et al. Combustible and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among High School Athletes – United States, 2001–2013. MMWR – Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2015;64:9359. Exposure
Agarwal D., Loukas A., Perry C. L. Examining College Students' Social Environment, Normative Beliefs, and Attitudes in Subsequent Initiation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems. Health Education & Behavior 2018;45:53239. Outcome
Akinboro O., Nwabudike S., Elias R., Balasire O., Ola O., Ostroff J. S. Electronic Cigarette Use among Survivors of Smoking-Related Cancers in the United States. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2019;09:09. Study design
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Aleyan S., Gohari M. R., Cole A. G., Leatherdale S. T. Exploring the Bi-Directional Association between Tobacco and E-Cigarette Use among Youth in Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2019;16:01. Outcome
Allen A., Vogel R. I., Meier E., Anderson A., Jensen J., Severson H. H., et al. Gender differences in snus versus nicotine gum for cigarette avoidance among a sample of US smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2016;168:812. Exposure
Andrews J. A., Tildesley E., Hops H., Duncan S. C., Severson H. H. Elementary School Age Children's Future Intentions and Use of Substances. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 2003;32:55667. Exposure
Anic G. M., Holder-Hayes E., Ambrose B. K., Rostron B. L., Coleman B., Jamal A., et al. E-cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Use and Switching Among Smokers: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2018;54:53951. Study design
Anic G. M., Sawdey M. D., Jamal A., Trivers K. F. Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users – United States, 2015–2017. MMWR – Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2018;67:135357. Study design
Arrazola R. A., Singh T., Corey C. G., Husten C. G., Neff L. J., Apelberg B. J., et al. Tobacco use among middle and high school students – United States, 2011–2014. MMWR – Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2015;64:3815. Study design
Audrain-McGovern J., Stone M. D., Barrington-Trimis J., Unger J. B., Leventhal A. M. Adolescent E-Cigarette, Hookah, and Conventional Cigarette Use and Subsequent Marijuana Use. Pediatrics 2018;142. Outcome
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Azagba S., Baskerville N. B., Foley K. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among middle and high school e-cigarette users in Canada. Preventive Medicine 2017;103:1419. Study design
Azagba S., Latham K., Shan L. Waterpipe tobacco smoking trends among middle and high school students in the United States from 2011 to 2017. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2019;200:1925. Study design
Backinger C. L., Fagan P., O'Connell M. E., Grana R., Lawrence D., Bishop J. A., et al. Use of other tobacco products among U.S. adult cigarette smokers: prevalence, trends and correlates. Addictive Behaviors 2008;33:47289. Study design
Baldassarri S. R., Bernstein S. L., Chupp G. L., Slade M. D., Fucito L. M., Toll B. A. Electronic cigarettes for adults with tobacco dependence enrolled in a tobacco treatment program: A pilot study. Addictive Behaviors 2018;80:15. Study design
Bandara N. A., Seneviratne M. Adolescents' Electronic Cigarette Use. Pediatrics 2019;143:01. Publication type
Barrett S. P., Campbell M. L., Temporale K., Good K. B. The acute effect of Swedish-style snus on cigarette craving and self-administration in male and female smokers. Human Psychopharmacology 2011;26:5862. Study duration
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Liu F., Unger J. B., Alonzo T., Cruz T. B., Urman R., et al. Evaluating the predictive value of measures of susceptibility to tobacco and alternative tobacco products. Addictive Behaviors 2019;96:5055. Exposure
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Urman R., Leventhal A. M., Gauderman W. J., Cruz T. B., Gilreath T. D., et al. E-cigarettes, Cigarettes, and the Prevalence of Adolescent Tobacco Use. Pediatrics 2016;138:08. Study design
Beard E., Brown J., McNeill A., Michie S., West R. Has growth in electronic cigarette use by smokers been responsible for the decline in use of licensed nicotine products? Findings from repeated cross-sectional surveys. Thorax 2015;70:9748. Study design
Beard E., Brown J., Michie S., West R. Is prevalence of e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy use among smokers associated with average cigarette consumption in England? A time-series analysis. BMJ Open 2018;8:e016046. Study design
Beard E., West R., Michie S., Brown J. Association between electronic cigarette use and changes in quit attempts, success of quit attempts, use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and use of stop smoking services in England: time series analysis of population trends. BMJ 2016;354:i4645. Study design
Beard E., West R., Michie S., Brown J. Association of prevalence of electronic cigarette use with smoking cessation and cigarette consumption in England: a time series analysis between 2006 and 2017. Addiction 2019;16:16. Study design
Benowitz N. L. E-cigarettes and dual nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2019;09:09. Publication type
Bianco C. L., Pratt S. I., Ferron J. C., Brunette M. F. Electronic Cigarette Use During a Randomized Trial of Interventions for Smoking Cessation Among Medicaid Beneficiaries with Mental Illness. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 2019;15:184191. Population
Biener L., Roman A. M., Mc Inerney S. A., Bolcic-Jankovic D., Hatsukami D. K., Loukas A., et al. Snus use and rejection in the USA. Tobacco Control 2016;25:38692. Study design
Biglan A., Duncan T. E., Ary D. V., Smolkowski K. Peer and parental influences on adolescent tobacco use. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1995;18:315330. Outcome
Blank M. L., Hoek J., George M., Gendall P., Conner T. S., Thrul J., et al. An Exploration of Smoking-to-Vaping Transition Attempts Using a "Smart" Electronic Nicotine Delivery System. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;06:06. Study duration
Bold K. W., Kong G., Cavallo D. A., Camenga D. R., Krishnan-Sarin S. Reasons for Trying E-cigarettes and Risk of Continued Use. Pediatrics 2016;138:09. Publication type
Borderud S. P., Li Y., Burkhalter J. E., Sheffer C. E., Ostroff J. S. Electronic cigarette use among patients with cancer: Characteristics of electronic cigarette users and their smoking cessation outcomes. Cancer 2014;120:352735. Population
Borrelli B., O'Connor G. T. E-cigarettes to assist with smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 2019;380:6789. Publication type
Boyle R. G., Stanton C. A., Sharma E., Tang Z. Examining quit attempts and successful quitting after recent cigarette tax increases. Preventive Medicine 2019;118:22631. Study design
Brandon K. O., Simmons V. N., Meltzer L. R., Drobes D. J., Martinez U., Sutton S. K., et al. Vaping characteristics and expectancies are associated with smoking cessation propensity among dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes. Addiction 2019;15:15. Population
Brikmanis K., Petersen A., Doran N. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2017;31:33642. Outcome
Brown J., Beard E., Kotz D., Michie S., West R. Real ‐ world effectiveness of e‐cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: A cross ‐ sectional population study. Addiction 2014;109:153140. Study design
Browne M., Todd D. G. Then and now: Consumption and dependence in e-cigarette users who formerly smoked cigarettes. Addictive Behaviors 2018;76:11321. Outcome
Bruserud O., Hansen B. A., Auestad H. M., Olsen S. F., Sorheim I. C., Bakke P. [Changes in smoking habits among medical students in Bergen 2004–2006]. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 2008;128:1812–4. Outcome
Bullen C., McRobbie H., Thornley S., Glover M., Lin R., Laugesen M. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial. Tobacco Control 2010;19:98–103. Outcome
Burris J. L., Carpenter M. J., Wahlquist A. E., Cummings K. M., Gray K. M. Brief, instructional smokeless tobacco use among cigarette smokers who do not intend to quit: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014;16:397–405. Exposure
Burris J. L., Wahlquist A. E., Alberg A. J., Cummings K. M., Gray K. M., Garrett-Mayer E., et al. A longitudinal, naturalistic study of U.S. smokers' trial and adoption of snus. Addictive Behaviors 2016;63:82–8. Exposure
Busch A. M., Leavens E. L., Wagener T. L., Buckley M. L., Tooley E. M. Prevalence, Reasons for Use, and Risk Perception of Electronic Cigarettes Among Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Smokers. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation & Prevention 2016;36:352–7. Study design
Cahn Z., Haardorfer R., Lewis M., Wang Y., Berg C. J. Examining e-cigarette purchases and cessation in a consumer panel of smokers. Journal Of Smoking Cessation 2019;14:32–41. Outcome
Caldwell B., Burgess C., Crane J. Randomized crossover trial of the acceptability of snus, nicotine gum, and Zonnic therapy for smoking reduction in heavy smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12:179–83. Study duration
Camenga D. R., Delmerico J., Kong G., Cavallo D., Hyland A., Cummings K. M., et al. Trends in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems by adolescents. Addictive Behaviors 2014;39:338–40. Study design
Camenga D. R., Kong G., Cavallo D. A., Krishnan-Sarin S. Current and Former Smokers' Use of Electronic Cigarettes for Quitting Smoking: An Exploratory Study of Adolescents and Young Adults. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;21:395. Publication type
Caponnetto P., Auditore R., Russo C., Cappello G. C., Polosa R. Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2013;10:446–61. Outcome
Caponnetto P., Campagna D., Cibella F., Morjaria J. B., Caruso M., Russo C., et al. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2013;8:e66317. Study design
Cardenas V. M., Evans V. L., Balamurugan A., Faramawi M. F., Delongchamp R. R., Wheeler J. G. Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems and recent initiation of smoking among US youth. International Journal of Public Health 2016;61:237–41. Study design
Carey F. R., Rogers S. M., Cohn E. A., Harrell M. B., Wilkinson A. V., Perry C. L. Understanding susceptibility to e-cigarettes: A comprehensive model of risk factors that influence the transition from non-susceptible to susceptible among e-cigarette naive adolescents. Addictive Behaviors 2018;05:05. Outcome
Carey F. R., Wilkinson A. V., Harrell M. B., Cohn E. A., Perry C. L. Measurement and predictive value of susceptibility to cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah among Texas adolescents. Addictive Behaviors Reports 2018;8:95–101. Outcome
Carpenter M. J., Wahlquist A. E., Burris J. L., Gray K. M., Garrett-Mayer E., Cummings K. M., et al. Snus undermines quit attempts but not abstinence: a randomised clinical trial among US smokers. Tobacco Control 2017;26:202–9. Population
Carroll D. M., Wagener T. L., Thompson D. M., Stephens L. D., Peck J. D., Campbell J. E., et al. Electronic nicotine delivery system use behaviour and loss of autonomy among American Indians: results from an observational study. BMJ Open 2017;7:e018469. Population
Cha S., Ganz O., Cohn A. M., Ehlke S. J., Graham A. L. Feasibility of biochemical verification in a web-based smoking cessation study. Addictive Behaviors 2017;73:204–8. Outcome
Chan G., Morphett K., Gartner C., Leung J., Yong H. H., Hall W., et al. Predicting vaping uptake, vaping frequency and ongoing vaping among daily smokers using longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Surveys. Addiction 2019;114 Suppl 1:61–70. Exposure
Chanchlani N. E-cigarettes: friend or foe? BMJ 2019;364:j5150. Study design
Chang J. T., Levy D. T., Meza R. Examining the Transitions Between Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Product Use in the United States Using the 2002–2003 and 2010–2011 Longitudinal Cohorts. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:1412–16. Exposure
Chen J. C., Green K. M., Arria A. M., Borzekowski D. L. G. Prospective predictors of flavored e-cigarette use: A one-year longitudinal study of young adults in the U.S. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2018;191:279–85. Outcome
Chen P. C., Chang L. C., Hsu C., Lee Y. C. Dual Use of E-Cigarettes and Traditional Cigarettes Among Adolescents in Taiwan, 2014–16. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;02:02. Study design
Chen P. C., Chang L. C., Hsu C., Lee Y. C. Electronic Cigarette Use and Attempts to Quit Smoking Cigarettes Among Adolescents in Taiwan. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;04:04. Study design
Cho J., Goldenson N. I., Stone M. D., McConnell R., Barrington-Trimis J. L., Chou C. P., et al. Characterizing Polytobacco Use Trajectories and Their Associations With Substance Use and Mental Health Across Mid-Adolescence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:S31–S38. Comparison
Choi K., Bestrashniy J., Forster J. Trends in Awareness, Use of, and Beliefs About Electronic Cigarette and Snus Among a Longitudinal Cohort of US Midwest Young Adults. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:239–45. Outcome
Choi K., Forster J. L. Beliefs and experimentation with electronic cigarettes: a prospective analysis among young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2014;46:175–8. Outcome
Chou S. P., Saha T. D., Zhang H., Ruan W. J., Huang B., Grant B. F., et al. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and treatment of electronic nicotine delivery system use in the United States. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2017;178:296–301. Study design
Clendennen S. L., Loukas A., Creamer M. R., Pasch K. E., Perry C. L. Longitudinal Patterns of Multiple Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use Among Texas College Students: a Latent Transition Analysis. Prevention Science 2019;20:1031–42. Exposure
Cole A. G., Chaurasia A., Kennedy R. D., Leatherdale S. T. Identifying behavioural characteristics of tobacco product and e-cigarette use clusters: A repeat cross-sectional analysis. Addictive Behaviors 2018;90:77–84. Study design
Cole A. G., Kennedy R. D., Chaurasia A., Leatherdale S. T. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2017;06:06. Outcome
Coleman B., Rostron B., Johnson S. E., Persoskie A., Pearson J., Stanton C., et al. Transitions in electronic cigarette use among adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Waves 1 and 2 (2013–2015). Tobacco Control 2018;25:25. Study design
Comiford A. L., Rhoades D. A., Spicer P., Ding K., Dvorak J. D., Driskill L., et al. E-cigarettes and Tobacco Exposure Biomarkers among American Indian Smokers. American Journal of Health Behavior 2018;42:101–9. Study duration
Conner M., Grogan S., Simms-Ellis R., Scholtens K., Sykes-Muskett B., Cowap L., et al. Patterns and predictors of e-cigarette, cigarette and dual use uptake in UK adolescents: evidence from a 24-month prospective study. Addiction 2019;114:2048–55. Studiedesign
Cook R., Davidson P., Martin R., Centre N. D. E-cigarettes helped more smokers quit than nicotine replacement therapy. BMJ 2019;365:l2036. Publication type
Cooper M., Loukas A., Case K. R., Marti C. N., Perry C. L. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2018;186:25763. Outcome
Creamer M. R., Delk J., Case K., Perry C. L., Harrell M. B. Positive Outcome Expectations and Tobacco Product Use Behaviors in Youth. Substance Use & Misuse 2018;53:1399–1402. Outcome
Creamer M., Case K., Loukas A., Cooper M., Perry C. L. Patterns of sustained e-cigarette use in a sample of young adults. Addictive Behaviors 2019;92:28–31. Outcome
Dai H. Changes in Flavored Tobacco Product Use among Current Youth Tobacco Users in the United States, 2014–2017. JAMA Pediatrics 2019;173:2824. Outcome
Dai H., Leventhal A. M. Association of electronic cigarette vaping and subsequent smoking relapse among former smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2019;199:10–17. Outcome
Das M. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation. Lancet Oncology 2019;20:e136. Publication type
Daughety V. S., Levy S. M., Ferguson K. J., Pomrehn P. R., Becker S. L. Surveying smokeless tobacco use, oral lesions and cessation among high school boys. Journal of the American Dental Association 1994;125:173–80. Study design
Delnevo C. D., Villanti A. C., Wackowski O. A., Gundersen D. A., Giovenco D. P. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking. Tobacco Control 2016;25:571–4. Study design
Doran N., Tully L. Impulsivity and tobacco product use over time. Addictive Behaviors 2018;85:1537. Exposure
Du P., Fan T., Yingst J., Veldheer S., Hrabovsky S., Chen C., et al. Changes in E-Cigarette Use Behaviors and Dependence in Long-term E-Cigarette Users. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2019;57:37483. Population
Dunbar M. S., Davis J. P., Rodriguez A., Tucker J. S., Seelam R., D'Amico E. J. Disentangling Within- and Between-Person Effects of Shared Risk Factors on E-cigarette and Cigarette Use Trajectories from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2019;21:141422. Study design
Dutra L. M., Glantz S. A. E-cigarettes and National Adolescent Cigarette Use: 2004–2014. Pediatrics 2017;139. Study design
Dutra L. M., Glantz S. A. Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional study. JAMA Pediatrics 2014;168:610–7. Study design
Dutra L. M., Glantz S. A. Thirty-day smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of smoking in young adulthood. Preventive Medicine 2018;109:17–21. Outcome
Eastwood B., Dockrell M. J., Arnott D., Britton J., Cheeseman H., Jarvis M. J., et al. Electronic cigarette use in young people in Great Britain 2013–2014. Public Health 2015;129:1150–6. Study design
Eastwood B., East K., Brose L. S., Dockrell M. J., Arnott D., Cheeseman H., et al. Electronic cigarette use in young people in Great Britain 2015–2016. Public Health 2017;149:45–48. Study design
Ebbert J. O., Haddock C. K., Vander Weg M., Klesges R. C., Poston W. S., DeBon M. Predictors of smokeless tobacco initiation in a young adult military cohort. American Journal of Health Behavior 2006;30:103–12. Population
Ebell M. H. e-Cigarettes More Effective Than Nicotine Replacement for Cessation of Tobacco Use in Adults. American Family Physician 2019;100:442. Publication type
Elin Smith K. Prevalence and Correlates of Electronic Cigarette Use Among a Clinical Sample of Polysubstance Users in Kentucky: Long Live the Cigarette? Substance Use & Misuse 2018:1–11. Population
El-Khoury F., Bolze C., Gomajee R., White V., Melchior M. Lower smoking rates and increased perceived harm of cigarettes among French adults one year after comprehensive tobacco control measures. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2019;201:65–70. Outcome
El-Shahawy O., Park S. H., Duncan D. T., Lee L., Tamura K., Shearston J. A., et al. Evaluating State-Level Differences in E-cigarette and Cigarette Use Among Adults in the United States Between 2012 and 2014: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;27:27. Exposure
Erly B. K., Prochazka A. V. E-cigarettes were more effective than nicotine replacement for smoking cessation at 1 year. Annals of Internal Medicine 2019;170:JC50. Publication type
Etter J. F., Electronic Cigarette: A Longitudinal Study of Regular Vapers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:9122. Study design
Etter J. F., Bullen C. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette users. Addictive Behaviors 2014;39:491–4. Study design
Etter J. F., A longitudinal study of cotinine in long-term daily users of e-cigarettes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2016;160:21821. Outcome
Evans-Polce R. J., Veliz P., Boyd C. J., McCabe S. E. Initiation Patterns and Trends of E-Cigarette and Cigarette Use Among U.S. Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2019. Study design
Fagerstrom K., Rutqvist L. E., Hughes J. R. Snus as a smoking cessation aid: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012;14:306–12. Population
Farsalinos K., Niaura R. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in the United States according to frequency of e-cigarette use and quitting duration: analysis of the 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Surveys. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;15:15. Study design
Felicione N. J., Enlow P., Elswick D., Long D., Rolly Sullivan C., Blank M. D. A pilot investigation of the effect of electronic cigarettes on smoking behavior among opioid-dependent smokers. Addictive Behaviors 2018. Population
Filippidis F. T., Laverty A. A., Gerovasili V., Vardavas C. I. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states. Tobacco Control 2017;26:98–104. Study design
Filippidis F. T., Laverty A. A., Mons U., Jimenez-Ruiz C., Vardavas C. I. Changes in smoking cessation assistance in the European Union between 2012 and 2017: pharmacotherapy versus counselling versus e-cigarettes. Tobacco Control 2018;21:21. Study design
Finoulst M., Vankrunkelsven P., Hendrickx S. The role of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation. Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 2016;72:36063. Language
Furberg H., Bulik C. M., Lerman C., Lichtenstein P., Pedersen N. L., Sullivan P. F. Is Swedish snus associated with smoking initiation or smoking cessation? Tobacco Control 2005;14:422–4. Study design
Furberg H., Lichtenstein P., Pedersen N. L., Bulik C. M., Lerman C., Sullivan P. F. Snus use and other correlates of smoking cessation in the Swedish Twin Registry. Psychological Medicine 2008;38:1299–308. Study design
Furberg H., Lichtenstein P., Pedersen N. L., Thornton L., Bulik C. M., Lerman C., et al. The STAGE cohort: a prospective study of tobacco use among Swedish twins. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008;10:1727–35. Study design
Galanti M. R., Wickholm S., Gilljam H. Between harm and dangers. Oral snuff use, cigarette smoking and problem behaviours in a survey of Swedish male adolescents. European Journal of Public Health 2001;11:340–5. Study design
Giovenco D. P., Delnevo C. D. Prevalence of population smoking cessation by electronic cigarette use status in a national sample of recent smokers. Addictive Behaviors 2018;76:12934. Study design
Gmel G., Clair C., Rougemont-Bucking A., Grazioli V. S., Daeppen J. B., Mohler-Kuo M., et al. Snus and Snuff Use in Switzerland Among Young Men: Are There Beneficial Effects on Smoking? Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:130109. Exposure
Goldenson N. I., Leventhal A. M., Stone M. D., McConnell R. S., Barrington-Trimis J. L. Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics 2017;171:119299. Study design
Goniewicz M. L., Gawron M., Nadolska J., Balwicki L., Sobczak A. Rise in electronic cigarette use among adolescents in Poland. Journal of Adolescent Health 2014;55:713–5. Study design
Gottlieb A., Pope S. K., Rickert V. I., Hardin B. H. Patterns of smokeless tobacco use by young adolescents. Pediatrics 1993;91:75–8. Study design
Gottlieb M. A. E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 2019;380:1974. Publication type
Grace R. C., Kivell B. M., Laugesen M. Gender differences in satisfaction ratings for nicotine electronic cigarettes by first-time users. Addictive Behaviors 2015;50:140–3. Exposure
Guerrero-Cignarella A., Luna Diaz L. V., Balestrini K., Holt G., Mirsaeidi M., Calderon-Candelario R., et al. Differences in vaping topography in relation to adherence to exclusive electronic cigarette use in veterans. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2018;13:e0195896. Study design
Haddock C. K., Lando H., Klesges R. C., Peterson A. L., Scarinci I. C. Modified tobacco use and lifestyle change in risk-reducing beliefs about smoking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;27:35–41. Exposure
Haddock C. K., Weg M. V., DeBon M., Klesges R. C., Talcott G. W., Lando H., et al. Evidence that smokeless tobacco use is a gateway for smoking initiation in young adult males. Preventive Medicine 2001;32:262–7. Population
Hagstrom K., Gannon D., Sobieraj D. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Connecticut Medicine 2014;78:435–9. Publication type
Hajek P., Phillips-Waller A., Przulj D., Pesola F., Smith K. M., Bisal N., et al. E-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy within the UK Stop Smoking Services: the TEC RCT. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England) 2019;23:1–82. Publication type
Hampson S. E., Andrews J. A., Severson H. H., Barckley M. Prospective Predictors of Novel Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use in Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health 2015;57:186–91. Exposure
Hanewinkel R., Isensee B. Risk factors for e-cigarette, conventional cigarette, and dual use in German adolescents: a cohort study. Preventive Medicine 2015;74:59–62. Exposure
Hansen W. B., McNeal R. B., Jr. Self-initiated cessation from substance use: A longitudinal study of the relationship between postulated mediators and quitting. Journal of Drug Issues 2001;31:957–75. Exposure
Hatsukami D. K., Jensen J., Anderson A., Broadbent B., Allen S., Zhang Y., et al. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2011;118:230–6. Study duration
Hatsukami D. K., Severson H., Anderson A., Vogel R. I., Jensen J., Broadbent B., et al. Randomised clinical trial of snus versus medicinal nicotine among smokers interested in product switching. Tobacco Control 2016;25:267–74. Exposure
Hawkins S. S., Ghiani M., Baum C. F. Associations Between State Tobacco Control Policies and Adolescent ENDS Use. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice 2018;31:31. Outcome
Hendricks P. S., Thorne C. B., Lappan S. N., Sweat N. W., Cheong J., Ramachandran R., et al. The Relationships of Expectancies With E-cigarette Use Among Hospitalized Smokers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:22430. Population
Henry A. D., Gettens J., Savageau J. A., Cullen D., Landau A. Massachusetts Medicaid members that smoked in 2008: Characteristics associated with smoking status in 2014. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2017;12:e0186144. Study design
Herbec A. A., Chang Y., Tindle H. A., Rigotti N. A. Smokers' use of electronic cigarettes before, during, and in the month after hospitalization. Findings from the Helping HAND 2 Study. Addictive Behaviors 2018;29:29. Study design
Hermes E. D., Wells T. S., Smith B., Boyko E. J., Gackstetter G. G., Miller S. C., et al. Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members. Addiction 2012;107:983–94. Population
Hickling L. M., Perez-Iglesias R., McNeill A., Dawkins L., Moxham J., Ruffell T., et al. A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness. Psychological Medicine 2018:1–8. Population
Hinton A., Nagaraja H. N., Cooper S., Wewers M. E. Tobacco product transition patterns in rural and urban cohorts: Where do dual users go? Preventive Medicine Reports 2018;12:2414. Exposure
Hsu G., Gamst A. C., Zhuang Y. L., Wolfson T., Zhu S. H. A comparison of E-cigarette use patterns and smoking cessation behavior among vapers by primary place of purchase. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16. Outcome
Huang L. L., Kowitt S. D., Sutfin E. L., Patel T., Ranney L. M., Goldstein A. O. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013. Preventing Chronic Disease 2016;13:E103. Study design
Huh J., Leventhal A. M. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2016;30:246–51. Study design
Huh J., Leventhal A. M. Progression of Poly-tobacco Product Use Patterns in Adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2016;51:513–7. Study design
Hummel K., Hoving C., Nagelhout G. E., de Vries H., van den Putte B., Candel M. J., et al. Prevalence and reasons for use of electronic cigarettes among smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. International Journal of Drug Policy 2015;26:601–8. Study design
Ingvar Rosendahl K., Rosaria Galanti M., Gilljam H. Trajectories of smokeless tobacco use and of cigarette smoking in a cohort of Swedish adolescents: Differences and implications. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2008;10:10217. Outcome
Jackson S. E., Beard E., Michie S., Shahab L., Raupach T., West R., et al. Are smokers who are regularly exposed to e-cigarette use by others more or less motivated to stop or to make a quit attempt? A cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. BMC Medicine 2018;16:206. Outcome
Jackson S. E., Hill E., Shahab L., Beard E., Michie S., Brown J. Prevalence and correlates of long-term e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy use: a prospective study in England. BMJ Open 2019;9:e029252. Outcome
Jackson S. E., Kotz D., West R., Brown J. Moderators of real-world effectiveness of smoking cessation aids: a population study. Addiction 2019;114:162738. Study design
Jha P. Smoking cessation and e-cigarettes in China and India. The BMJ 2019;367. Publication type
Jo C. L., Golden S. D., Noar S. M., Rini C., Ribisl K. M. Effects of E-cigarette Advertising Messages and Cues on Cessation Outcomes. Tobacco Regulatory Science 2018;4:56272. Outcome
Johnson L., Ma Y., Fisher S. L., Ramsey A. T., Chen L. S., Hartz S. M., et al. E-cigarette Usage Is Associated with Increased Past-12-Month Quit Attempts and Successful Smoking Cessation in Two US Population-Based Surveys. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2019;21:133138. Study design
Joksic G., Spasojevic-Tisma V., Antic R., Nilsson R., Rutqvist L. E. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation. Harm Reduction Journal 2011;8:25. Population
Jones D. M., Popova L., Weaver S. R., Pechacek T. F., Eriksen M. P. A National Comparison of Dual Users of Smokeless Tobacco and Cigarettes and Exclusive Cigarette Smokers, 2015–2016. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:S62–S70. Exposure
Jorenby D. E., Smith S. S., Fiore M. C., Baker T. B. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2017;170:93–101. Study design
Kalkhoran S., Chang Y., Rigotti N. A. Electronic Cigarette Use and Cigarette Abstinence Over Two Years among U.S. Smokers in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;11:11. Study design
Kalkhoran S., Kruse G. R., Rigotti N. A., Rabin J., Ostroff J. S., Park E. R. Electronic cigarette use patterns and reasons for use among smokers recently diagnosed with cancer. Cancer Medicine 2018;7:348491. Study design
Kasza K. A., Bansal-Travers M., O'Connor R J., Compton W. M., Kettermann A., Borek N., et al. Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: Findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2014;16:67281. Exposure
Kaufman A. R., Land S., Parascandola M., Augustson E., Backinger C. L. Tobacco use transitions in the United States: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Preventive Medicine 2015;81:251–7. Population
Kim S. Y., England L., Dietz P. M., Morrow B., Perham-Hester K. A. Patterns of cigarette and smokeless tobacco use before, during, and after pregnancy among Alaska native and white women in Alaska, 2000–2003. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2010;14:365–72. Study design
Kim S. Y., England L., Dietz P. M., Morrow B., Perham-Hester K. A. Prenatal cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among Alaska native and white women in Alaska, 1996–2003. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2009;13:652–9. Study design
Kim S., Selya A. S. The Relationship Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Conventional Cigarette Smoking Is Largely Attributable to Shared Risk Factors. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;04:04. Study design
King A. C., Smith L. J., McNamara P. J., Cao D. Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking Cue. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:24652. Study duration
King A. C., Smith L. J., McNamara P. J., Matthews A. K., Fridberg D. J. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers. Tobacco Control 2015;24:501–4. Study design
Kinnunen J. M., Ollila H., Lindfors P. L., Rimpela A. H. Changes in Electronic Cigarette Use from 2013 to 2015 and Reasons for Use among Finnish Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2016;13:09. Study design
Kinnunen J. M., Ollila H., Minkkinen J., Lindfors P. L., Rimpela A. H. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors for Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Comparison with Conventional Smoking. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:09. Exposure
Klesges R. C., DeBon M., Vander Weg M. W., Haddock C. K., Lando H. A., Relyea G. E., et al. Efficacy of a tailored tobacco control program on long-term use in a population of US Military troops. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006;74:295–306. Population
Klesges R. C., Sherrill-Mittleman D., Ebbert J. O., Talcott G. W., Debon M. Tobacco use harm reduction, elimination, and escalation in a large military cohort. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100:2487–92. Population
Kock L., Shahab L., West R., Brown J. E-cigarette use in England 2014–17 as a function of socio-economic profile. Addiction 2019;114:294–303. Study design
Kotlyar M., Hertsgaard L. A., Lindgren B. R., Jensen J. A., Carmella S. G., Stepanov I., et al. Effect of oral snus and medicinal nicotine in smokers on toxicant exposure and withdrawal symptoms: a feasibility study.[Erratum appears in Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 May;20(5):1048]. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2011;20:91–100. Outcome
Kotz D., Bockmann M., Kastaun S. The Use of Tobacco, E-Cigarettes, and Methods to Quit Smoking in Germany. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 2018;115:23542. Study design
Kotz D., Böckmann M., Kastaun S. The use of tobacco, e-cigarettes, and methods to quit smoking in Germany - A representative study using 6 waves of data over 12 months (the DEBRA study). Deutsches Arzteblatt International 2018;115:23542. Study design
Kousta S. E-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Nature Human Behaviour 2019;3:322. Publication type
Kowitt S. D., Osman A., Ranney L. M., Heck C., Goldstein A. O. E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents Not Susceptible to Using Cigarettes. Preventing Chronic Disease 2018;15:E18. Study design
Kozlowski L. T., O'Connor R. J., Edwards B. Q., Flaherty B. P. Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample. Addiction 2003;98:1077–85. Study design
Krautter G. R., Chen P. X., Borgerding M. F. Consumption patterns and biomarkers of exposure in cigarette smokers switched to Snus, various dissolvable tobacco products, Dual use, or tobacco abstinence. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 2015;71:186–97. Outcome
Kreyberg I., Bains K. E. S., Carlsen K. H., Granum B., Gudmundsdottir H. K., Haugen G., et al. Stopping when knowing: use of snus and nicotine during pregnancy in Scandinavia. Erj Open Research 2019;5. Study design
Kristjansson A. L., Allegrante J. P., Sigfusson J., Sigfusdottir I. D. Do population trends in adolescent electronic cigarette use coincide with changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking? Preventive Medicine Reports 2019;15. Study design
Kulak J. A., Bover Manderski M. T., Delnevo C. D., Hrywna M., Homish G. G., Giovino G. A. Differential Trends in Hookah Use Among New Jersey Youth. Preventing Chronic Disease 2019;16:E138. Exposure
Kulak J. A., Manderski M. B. T., Travers M. J., Delnevo C. D., Hrywna M., Bansal-Travers M., et al. Patterns and Trends of Hookah Use among New Jersey Youth: New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey 2008–2014. American Journal of Health Behavior 2018;42:21–35. Study design
Kurti A. N., Redner R., Bunn J. Y., Tang K., Nighbor T., Lopez A. A., et al. Examining the relationship between pregnancy and quitting use of tobacco products in a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age. Preventive Medicine 2018;117:52–60. Exposure
Laverty A. A., Filippidis F. T., Vardavas C. I. Patterns, trends and determinants of e-cigarette use in 28 European Union Member States 2014-2017. Preventive Medicine 2018;116:13–18. Study design
Lechner W. V., Janssen T., Kahler C. W., Audrain-McGovern J., Leventhal A. M. Bi-directional associations of electronic and combustible cigarette use onset patterns with depressive symptoms in adolescents. Preventive Medicine 2017;96:73–78. Outcome
Lechner W. V., Murphy C. M., Colby S. M., Janssen T., Rogers M. L., Jackson K. M. Cognitive risk factors of electronic and combustible cigarette use in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors 2018;82:182–188. Exposure
Lee H. S., Wilson S., Partos T., McNeill A., Brose L. S. Awareness of changes in e-cigarette regulations and behaviour before and after implementation: A longitudinal survey of smokers, ex-smokers and vapers in the United Kingdom. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;25:25. Outcome
Leon M. E., Lugo A., Boffetta P., Gilmore A., Ross H., Schuz J., et al. Smokeless tobacco use in Sweden and other 17 European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2016;26:81721. Study design
Li J., Hajek P., Pesola F., Wu Q., Phillips-Waller A., Przulj D., et al. Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomised controlled trial. Addiction 2019;09:09. Outcome
Li J., Newcombe R., Walton D. The prevalence, correlates and reasons for using electronic cigarettes among New Zealand adults. Addictive Behaviors 2015;45:245–51. Study design
Lindstrom M., Isacsson S. O., Malmo Shoulder-Neck Study G. Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study. Tobacco Control 2002;11:61–7. Population
Lindstrom M., Isacsson S. O., Malmo Shoulder-Neck Study G. Smoking cessation among daily smokers, aged 45–69 years: a longitudinal study in Malmo, Sweden. Addiction 2002;97:205–15. Publication year
Lippert A. M. Temporal Changes in the Correlates of U.S. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use and Utilization in Tobacco Cessation, 2011 to 2013. Health Education & Behavior 2017;44:254–61. Study design
Litt M. D., Duffy V., Oncken C. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings. Tobacco Control: An International Journal 2016;25:67–72. Exposure
Liu X., Lugo A., Davoli E., Gorini G., Pacifici R., Fernandez E., et al. Electronic cigarettes in Italy: a tool for harm reduction or a gateway to smoking tobacco? Tobacco Control 2019;18:18. Study design
Lopez A. A., Cobb C. O., Yingst J. M., Veldheer S., Hrabovsky S., Yen M. S., et al. A transdisciplinary model to inform randomized clinical trial methods for electronic cigarette evaluation. BMC Public Health 2016;16:217. Publication type
Loukas A., Batanova M., Fernandez A., Agarwal D. Changes in use of cigarettes and non-cigarette alternative products among college students. Addictive Behaviors 2015;49:46–51. Outcome
Loukas A., Marti C. N., Perry C. L. Trajectories of Tobacco and Nicotine Use Across Young Adulthood, Texas, 2014–2017. American Journal of Public Health 2019;109:465–71. Outcome
Lund I., Christiansen S. G. Association between snus use over time and smoking cessation in Norwegian smokers. Addiction 2019;09:09. Study design
Lund I., Lund K. E. How has the availability of snus influenced cigarette smoking in Norway? International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2014;11:11705–17. Study design
Lund I., Scheffels J. Smoking and snus use onset: Exploring the influence of snus debut age on the risk for smoking uptake with cross-sectional survey data. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2014;16:81519. Study duration
Lund K. E., McNeill A., Scheffels J. The use of snus for quitting smoking compared with medicinal products. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2010;12:817–22. Study design
Lund K. E., Vedoy T. F., Bauld L. Do never smokers make up an increasing share of snus users as cigarette smoking declines? Changes in smoking status among male snus users in Norway 2003–15. Addiction 2017;112:340–48. Study design
Lund K. E., Vedøy T. F., Bauld L. Do never smokers make up an increasing share of snus users as cigarette smoking declines? Changes in smoking status among male snus users in Norway 2003–15. Addiction 2017;112:34048. Study design
Macy J. T., Li J., Xun P., Presson C. C., Chassin L. Dual Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use From Adolescence to Midlife Among Males in a Midwestern US Community Sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2016;18:186–95. Study design
Maher J. E., Bushore C. J., Rohde K., Dent C. W., Peterson E. Is smokeless tobacco use becoming more common among U.S. male smokers? Trends in Alaska. Addictive Behaviors 2012;37:862–5. Exposure
Maki J. The incentives created by a harm reduction approach to smoking cessation: Snus and smoking in Sweden and Finland. International Journal of Drug Policy 2015;26:569–74. Study design
Mamudu H. M., Wang L., Owusu D., Robertson C., Collins C., Littleton M. A. Prospective study of dual use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products among school-going youth in rural Appalachian Tennessee. Annals of Thoracic Medicine 2019;14:127–33. Study design
McCabe S. E., West B. T., McCabe V. V. Associations Between Early Onset of E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking and Other Substance Use Among US Adolescents: A National Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:923–30. Study design
McClelland E., Valentine N., McMillen R. Tobacco Use Trends among Mississippi Youth following the 1997 Settlement of Mississippi's Medicaid Lawsuit and Subsequent Tobacco Prevention Initiatives. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association 2015;56:32833. Study design
McKeganey N., Miler J. A., Haseen F. The Value of Providing Smokers with Free E-Cigarettes: Smoking Reduction and Cessation Associated with the Three-Month Provision to Smokers of a Refillable Tank-Style E-Cigarette. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:03. Study design
Measham F., O'Brien K., Turnbull G. 'Skittles & Red Bull is my favourite flavour': E-cigarettes, smoking, vaping and the changing landscape of nicotine consumption amongst British teenagers—Implications for the normalisation debate. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy 2016;23:22437. Study design
Meier E., Burris J. L., Wahlquist A., Garrett-Mayer E., Gray K. M., Alberg A. J., et al. Perceptions of snus among US adult smokers given free product. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:22–29. Outcome
Meier E., Wahlquist A. E., Heckman B. W., Cummings K. M., Froeliger B., Carpenter M. J. A Pilot Randomized Crossover Trial of Electronic Cigarette Sampling Among Smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2017;19:176–82. Study duration
Meme M. E. T., Tiekso J. T., Syrjänen S. M. Snuff use and smoking among senior high school students: Effects of a snuff sales ban. Oral Diseases 1998;4:207–12. Study design
Mendes A. Vaping for smoking cessation. British Journal of Community Nursing 2019;24:404–5. Publication type
Merianos A. L., Mancuso T. F., Gordon J. S., Wood K. J., Cimperman K. A., Mahabee-Gittens E. M. Dual- and Polytobacco/Nicotine Product Use Trends in a National Sample of High School Students. American Journal of Health Promotion 2018;32:1280–90. Study design
Messer K., Vijayaraghavan M., White M. M., Shi Y., Chang C., Conway K. P., et al. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco. Addictive Behaviors 2015;51:113–9. Study design
Mini G. K., Thankappan K. R. Switching to smokeless tobacco, the most common smoking cessation method: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India. Public Health 2016;136:172–4. Exposure
Mohamed M. H. N., Rahman A., Jamshed S., Mahmood S. Effectiveness and safety of electronic cigarettes among sole and dual user vapers in Kuantan and Pekan, Malaysia: a six-month observational study. BMC Public Health 2018;18:1028. Comparison
Mumford E. A., Levy D. T., Gitchell J. G., Blackman K. O. Smokeless tobacco use 1992–2002: trends and measurement in the Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplements. Tobacco Control 2006;15:166–71. Study design
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Nelson P. R., Chen P., Battista D. R., Pillitteri J. L., Shiffman S. Randomized trial to compare smoking cessation rates of snus, with and without smokeless tobacco health-related information, and a nicotine lozenge. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2019;21:88–94. Exposure
Nguyen K., Marshall L., Hu S., Neff L., Centers for Disease C., Prevention. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged >=18 years – United States, 2011–2013. MMWR – Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2015;64:532–6. Study design
Nicksic N. E., Barnes A. J. Is susceptibility to E-cigarettes among youth associated with tobacco and other substance use behaviors one year later? Results from the PATH study. Preventive Medicine 2019;121:109–14. Exposure
Nolan M., Leischow S., Croghan I., Kadimpati S., Hanson A., Schroeder D., et al. Feasibility of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems in Surgical Patients. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2016;18:1757–62. Study design
Nordgren P., Ramstrom L. Moist snuff in Sweden–tradition and evolution. British Journal of Addiction 1990;85:1107–12. Study design
O'Connor R. J., Kozlowski L. T., Flaherty B. P., Edwards B. Q. Most smokeless tobacco use does not cause cigarette smoking: results from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Addictive Behaviors 2005;30:325–36. Study design
Olfson M., Wall M. M., Liu S. M., Sultan R. S., Blanco C. E-cigarette Use Among Young Adults in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2019;56:65563. Study design
Osman A., Kowitt S. D., Ranney L. M., Heck C., Goldstein A. O. Trends and Racial Disparities in Mono, Dual, and Poly Use of Tobacco Products Among Youth. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:S22–S30. Exposure
Pacifici R., Pichini S., Graziano S., Pellegrini M., Massaro G., Beatrice F. Successful Nicotine Intake in Medical Assisted Use of E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2015;12:7638–46. Study design
Pamplona P., Ravara S., Boléo-Tomé J. P., Rosa P., Morais A. Breathe, breathe in the air, don't be afraid to care. Pulmonology 2019;25:131–33. Publication type
Park S. H., Duncan D. T., Shahawy O. E., Lee L., Shearston J. A., Tamura K., et al. Characteristics of Adults Who Switched From Cigarette Smoking to E-cigarettes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2017;53:652–660. Study design
Parker M. A., Villanti A. C., Quisenberry A. J., Stanton C. A., Doogan N. J., Redner R., et al. Tobacco Product Harm Perceptions and New Use. Pediatrics 2018;142. Exposure
Patja K., Hakala S. M., Bostrom G., Nordgren P., Haglund M. Trends of tobacco use in Sweden and Finland: do differences in tobacco policy relate to tobacco use? Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2009;37:153–60. Study design
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Peltier M. R., Waters A. F., Roys M. R., Stewart S. A., Waldo K. M., Copeland A. L. Dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes have greater positive smoking expectancies than regular smokers: a study of smoking expectancies among college students. Journal of American College Health 2019:1–6. Outcome
Perry C. L., Perez A., Bluestein M., Garza N., Obinwa U., Jackson C., et al. Youth or Young Adults: Which Group Is at Highest Risk for Tobacco Use Onset? Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;63:413–20. Exposure
Persoskie A., Donaldson E. A., King B. A. Ever-Use and Curiosity About Cigarettes, Cigars, Smokeless Tobacco, and Electronic Cigarettes Among US Middle and High School Students, 2012–2014. Preventing Chronic Disease 2016;13:E134. Outcome
Piper M. E., Baker T. B., Benowitz N. L., Kobinsky K. H., Jorenby D. E. Dual Users Compared to Smokers: Demographics, Dependence, and Biomarkers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;21:127984. Publication type
Polosa R., Caponnetto P., Cibella F., Le-Houezec J. Quit and smoking reduction rates in vape shop consumers: a prospective 12-month survey. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2015;12:3428–38. Study design
Polosa R., Caponnetto P., Maglia M., Morjaria J. B., Russo C. Success rates with nicotine personal vaporizers: a prospective 6-month pilot study of smokers not intending to quit. BMC Public Health 2014;14:1159. Study design
Polosa R., Caponnetto P., Morjaria J. B., Papale G., Campagna D., Russo C. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study. BMC Public Health 2011;11:786. Study design
Polosa R., Morjaria J. B., Caponnetto P., Campagna D., Russo C., Alamo A., et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study. Internal & Emergency Medicine 2014;9:537–46. Study design
Polosa R., Morjaria J. B., Caponnetto P., Prosperini U., Russo C., Pennisi A., et al. Evidence for harm reduction in COPD smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes. Respiratory Research 2016;17:166. Outcome
Porter L., Duke J., Hennon M., Dekevich D., Crankshaw E., Homsi G., et al. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011–2014. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2015;10:e0124385. Study design
Prochaska J. J., Grana R. A. E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illness. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2014;9:e113013. Population
Rahman A., Mohamad M. H. N., Jamshed S. Evaluating effectiveness and safety toward electronic cigarette among Malaysian vapers: One-month observational study. Archives of Pharmacy Practice 2016;7:43–53. Study duration
Ramo D. E., Thrul J., Chavez K., Delucchi K. L., Prochaska J. J. Feasibility and quit rates of the tobacco status project: A Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2015;17:1–13. Exposure
Ramstrom L. M., Foulds J. Role of snus in initiation and cessation of tobacco smoking in Sweden. Tobacco Control 2006;15:210–4. Study design
Ramstrom L., Borland R., Wikmans T. Patterns of Smoking and Snus Use in Sweden: Implications for Public Health. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2016;13:09. Study design
Richardson A., Pearson J., Xiao H., Stalgaitis C., Vallone D. Prevalence, harm perceptions, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among current and former smokers. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104:1437–44. Study design
Riehm K. E., Young A. S., Feder K. A., Krawczyk N., Tormohlen K. N., Pacek L. R., et al. Mental health problems and initiation of e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use. Pediatrics 2019;144. Outcome
Rodu B., Jansson J. H., Eliasson M. The low prevalence of smoking in the Northern Sweden MONICA study, 2009. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2013;41:808–11. Outcome
Rodu B., Plurphanswat N. Quit Methods Used by American Smokers, 2013–2014. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2017;14:17. Publication type
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Ruokolainen O., Ollila H., Lahti J., Rahkonen O. Intergenerational social mobility, smoking and smokeless tobacco (snus) use among adolescents during 2008–2017. Addictive Behaviors 2019;98:106022. Study design
Sanford N. N., Sher D. J., Xu X., Aizer A. A., Mahal B. A. Trends in Smoking and e-Cigarette Use among US Patients with Cancer, 2014–2017. JAMA Oncology 2019;5:4268. Study design
Sathish T., Kannan S., Sarma P. S., Thankappan K. R. Incidence of tobacco use among adults (15–64 years) in rural Kerala. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 2015;27:NP626–9. Exposure
Saunders C., Geletko K. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012;14:977–85. Study design
Sawdey M. D., Day H. R., Coleman B., Gardner L. D., Johnson S. E., Limpert J., et al. Associations of risk factors of e-cigarette and cigarette use and susceptibility to use among baseline PATH study youth participants (2013–2014). Addictive Behaviors 2019;91:51–60. Study design
Schauer G. L., Malarcher A. M., Babb S. D. Prevalence and correlates of switching to another tobacco product to quit smoking cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2015;17:622–7. Outcome
Scheffels J., Lund K. E., McNeill A. Contrasting snus and NRT as methods to quit smoking. an observational study. Harm Reduction Journal 2012;9:10. Outcome
Schinke S. P., Tepavac L., Cole K. C. Preventing substance use among Native American youth: Three-year results. Addictive Behaviors 2000;25:38797. Exposure
Seto J. C., Davis J. W., Taira D. A. E-cigarette Use Related to Demographic Factors in Hawai'i. Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health : A Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health 2016;75:295–302. Study design
Severson H. H., Forrester K. K., Biglan A. Use of smokeless tobacco is a risk factor for cigarette smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9:1331–7. Exposure
Sharapova S., Reyes-Guzman C., Singh T., Phillips E., Marynak K. L., Agaku I. Age of tobacco use initiation and association with current use and nicotine dependence among US middle and high school students, 2014–2016. Tobacco Control 2018;29:29. Study design
Shepardson R. L., Hustad J. T. Hookah Tobacco Smoking During the Transition to College: Prevalence of Other Substance Use and Predictors of Initiation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2016;18:763–9. Exposure
Siegel M. B., Tanwar K. L., Wood K. S. Electronic cigarettes as a smoking-cessation: tool results from an online survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011;40:472–5. Study design
Silveira M. L., Conway K. P., Green V. R., Kasza K. A., Sargent J. D., Borek N., et al. Longitudinal associations between youth tobacco and substance use in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2018;191:25–36. Study design
Simon P., Buta E., Gueorguieva R., Kong G., Morean M. E., Camenga D., et al. Transitions Across Tobacco Use Profiles Among Adolescents: Results from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 1 and Wave 2. Addiction 2019;16:16. Outcome
Slomski A. e-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation. JAMA 2019;321:1149. Publication type
Smith D. M., Gawron M., Balwicki L., Sobczak A., Matynia M., Goniewicz M. L. Exclusive versus dual use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes among adolescents in Poland, 2010–2016. Addictive Behaviors 2019;90:3418. Study design
Smith T. T., Wahlquist A. E., Heckman B. W., Cummings K. M., Carpenter M. J. Impact of e-cigarette sampling on cigarette dependence and reinforcement value. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;30:30. Outcome
Snow E., Johnson T., Ossip D. J., Williams G. C., Ververs D., Rahman I., et al. Does E-cigarette Use at Baseline Influence Smoking Cessation Rates among 2-Year College Students? Journal Of Smoking Cessation 2018;13:11020. Study duration
Soneji S., Sargent J. D., Tanski S. E., Primack B. A. Associations between initial water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use and subsequent cigarette smoking: results from a longitudinal study of US adolescents and young adults. JAMA Pediatrics 2015;169:129–36. Exposure
Soneji S., Yang J., Knutzen K. E., Moran M. B., Tan A. S. L., Sargent J., et al. Online tobacco marketing and subsequent tobacco use. Pediatrics 2018;141:1–11. Outcome
Stein M. D., Caviness C., Grimone K., Audet D., Anderson B. J., Bailey G. L. An Open Trial of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation Among Methadone-Maintained Smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2016;18:1157–62. Population
Stenbeck M., Hagquist C., Rosen M. The association of snus and smoking behaviour: a cohort analysis of Swedish males in the 1990s. Addiction 2009;104:1579–85. Publication year
Stower H. E-cigarettes to help smoking cessation. Nature Medicine 2019. Publication type
Strong D. R., Myers M., Linke S., Leas E., Hofstetter R., Edland S., et al. Gender differences influence overweight smokers' experimentation with electronic nicotine delivery systems. Addictive Behaviors 2015;49:20–5. Outcome
Sung B. E-cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation Among South Korean Adult Smokers: A Propensity Score–Matching Approach. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 2018;30:33241. Study design
Tabuchi T., Shinozaki T., Kunugita N., Nakamura M., Tsuji I. Study Profile: The Japan "Society and New Tobacco" Internet Survey (JASTIS): A longitudinal internet cohort study of heat-not-burn tobacco products, electronic cigarettes and conventional tobacco products in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology 2018;13:13. Study design
Taylor N., Choi K., Forster J. Snus use and smoking behaviors: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults. American Journal of Public Health 2015;105:683–5. Exposure
Temple J. R., Shorey R. C., Lu Y., Torres E., Stuart G. L., Le V. D. E-cigarette use of young adults motivations and associations with combustible cigarette alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. American Journal on Addictions 2017;26:3438. Study duration
Tilashalski K., Rodu B., Cole P. A pilot study of smokeless tobacco in smoking cessation. American Journal of Medicine 1998;104:456–8. Study design
Tilashalski K., Rodu B., Cole P. Seven year follow-up of smoking cessation with smokeless tobacco. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2005;37:105–8. Outcome
Tilashalski K., Rodu B., Cole P. Short Communication: Seven Year Follow-Up of Smoking Cessation With Smokeless Tobacco. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2005;37:1058. Study design
Tillgren P., Haglund B. J., Ainetdin T., Holm L. E. Who is a successful quitter? One-year follow-up of a National Tobacco Quit and Win Contest in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 1995;23:193–201. Publication year
Tillgren P., Haglund B. J., Lundberg M., Romelsjo A. The sociodemographic pattern of tobacco cessation in the 1980s: results from a panel study of living condition surveys in Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 1996;50:625–30. Publication year
Timberlake D. S., Huh J., Lakon C. M. Use of propensity score matching in evaluating smokeless tobacco as a gateway to smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009;11:455–62. Exposure
Tomar S. L. Is use of smokeless tobacco a risk factor for cigarette smoking? The U.S. experience. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2003;5:561–9. Exposure
Tomar S. L., Giovino G. A. Incidence and predictors of smokeless tobacco use among US youth. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88:20–6. Exposure
Tonstad S., Job J. S., Batech M., Yel D., Kheam T., Singh P. N. Adult tobacco cessation in Cambodia: I. Determinants of quitting tobacco use. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 2013;25:10S–9S. Study design
Truman P., Glover M., Fraser T. An Online Survey of New Zealand Vapers. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:29. Study duration
Tucker M. R., Laugesen M., Bullen C., Grace R. C. Predicting Short-Term Uptake of Electronic Cigarettes: Effects of Nicotine, Subjective Effects, and Simulated Demand. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:126571. Study duration
Unger J. B., Soto D. W., Leventhal A. E-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette and marijuana use among Hispanic young adults. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2016;163:261–4. Population
Wang Y., Sung H. Y., Yao T., Lightwood J., Max W. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use. Addiction 2017;112:864–72. Outcome
Wang Y., Sung H.-Y., Yao T., Lightwood J., Max W. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers and daily smokers: Their characteristics and other tobacco use patterns. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:7418. Exposure
Wang-Schweig M., Jason L. A., Stevens E., Chaparro J. Tobacco Use among Recovery Home Residents: Vapers Less Confident to Quit. American Journal of Health Behavior 2019;43:106474. Study design
Veliz P., Eisman A., McCabe S. E., Evans-Polce R., McCabe V. V., Boyd C. J. E-Cigarette Use, Polytobacco Use, and Longitudinal Changes in Tobacco and Substance Use Disorder Symptoms Among U.S. Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2019;05:05. Outcome
West R., Shahab L., Brown J. Estimating the population impact of e‐cigarettes on smoking cessation in England. Addiction 2016;111:1118–19. Study design
Westling E., Rusby J. C., Crowley R., Light J. M. Electronic Cigarette Use by Youth: Prevalence, Correlates, and Use Trajectories From Middle to High School. Journal of Adolescent Health 2017;60:660–6. Outcome
Wetter D. W., McClure J. B., de Moor C., Cofta-Gunn L., Cummings S., Cinciripini P. M., et al. Concomitant use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: prevalence, correlates, and predictors of tobacco cessation. Preventive Medicine 2002;34:638–48. Exposure
Wills T. A., Gibbons F. X., Sargent J. D., Schweitzer R. J. How is the effect of adolescent e-cigarette use on smoking onset mediated: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2016;30:87686. Outcome
Wills T. A., Sargent J. D., Knight R., Pagano I., Gibbons F. X. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers. Tobacco Control 2016;25:e52–9. Outcome
Vogel E. A., Prochaska J. J., Ramo D. E., Andres J., Rubinstein M. L. Adolescents’ E-Cigarette Use: Increases in Frequency, Dependence, and Nicotine Exposure Over 12 Months. Journal of Adolescent Health 2019;64:770–5. Studiedesign
Wolfson M., Suerken C. K., Egan K. L., Sutfin E. L., Reboussin B. A., Wagoner K. G., et al. The role of smokeless tobacco use in smoking persistence among male college students. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse 2015;41:541–46. Exposure
Wu S. Y., Wang M. P., Li W. H., Kwong A. C., Lai V. W., Lam T. H. Does Electronic Cigarette Use Predict Abstinence from Conventional Cigarettes among Smokers in Hong Kong? International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:26. Study design
Yeh J. S., Bullen C., Glantz S. A. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine 2016;374:2172–74. Study design
Yingst J., Foulds J., Veldheer S., Du P. Device characteristics of long term electronic cigarette users: A follow-up study. Addictive Behaviors 2019;91:23843. Outcome
Yong H. H., Hitchman S. C., Cummings K. M., Borland R., Gravely S. M. L., McNeill A., et al. Does the Regulatory Environment for E-Cigarettes Influence the Effectiveness of E-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation?: Longitudinal Findings From the ITC Four Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2017;19:126876. Publication type
Zabor E. C., Li Y., Thornton L. M., Shuman M. R., Bulik C. M., Lichtenstein P., et al. Initial reactions to tobacco use and risk of future regular use. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2013;15:509–17. Study duration
Zhu S. H., Wang J. B., Hartman A., Zhuang Y., Gamst A., Gibson J. T., et al. Quitting cigarettes completely or switching to smokeless tobacco: do US data replicate the Swedish results? Tobacco Control 2009;18:82–7. Exposure
Zhu S. H., Zhuang Y. L., Wong S., Cummins S. E., Tedeschi G. J. E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: evidence from US current population surveys. BMJ 2017;358:j3262. Study design
Zuckermann A. M. E., Williams G., Battista K., de Groh M., Jiang Y., Leatherdale S. T. Trends of poly-substance use among Canadian youth. Addictive Behaviors Reports 2019;10. Study design

Studies of high risk of bias

  • Amato M. S., Boyle R. G., Levy D. E-cigarette use 1 year later in a population-based prospective cohort. Tob Control 2017;26:e92-e96.
  • Brady B. R., Crane T. E., O'Connor P. A., Nair U. S., Yuan N. P. Electronic cigarette use and tobacco cessation in a state-based quitline. J Smok Cessat 2019.
  • Cadet M. Are E-cigarettes more effective in supporting smoking cessation than nicotine-replacement therapy? Evid Based Nurs 2019;19:19.
  • Caponnetto P., DiPiazza J., Cappello G. C., Demma S., Maglia M., Polosa R. Multimodal Smoking Cessation in a Real-Life Setting: Combining Motivational Interviewing With Official Therapy and Reduced Risk Products. Tob Use Insights 2019;12:1179173X19878435.
  • Chien Y. N., Gao W., Sanna M., Chen P. L., Chen Y. H., Glantz S., et al. Electronic cigarette use and smoking initiation in Taiwan: Evidence from the first prospective study in Asia. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16.
  • Creamer M. R., Loukas A., Clendennen S., Mantey D., Pasch K. E., Marti C. N., et al. Longitudinal predictors of cigarette use among students from 24 Texas colleges. J Am Coll Health 2018;66:617-24.
  • Gmel G., Baggio S., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J. B., Studer J. E-cigarette use in young Swiss men: is vaping an effective way of reducing or quitting smoking? Swiss Med Wkly 2016;146:w14271.
  • Halpern S. D., Harhay M. O., Saulsgive K., Brophy C., Troxel A. B., Volp K. G. A pragmatic trial of e-cigarettes, incentives, and drugs for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 2018;378:2302-10.
  • Hitchman S. C., Brose L. S., Brown J., Robson D., McNeill A. Associations Between E-Cigarette Type, Frequency of Use, and Quitting Smoking: Findings From a Longitudinal Online Panel Survey in Great Britain. Nicotine Tob Res 2015;17:1187-94.
  • Joffer J., Burell G., Bergstrom E., Stenlund H., Sjors L., Jerden L. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents. BMC Public Health 2014;14:1296.
  • Kasza K. A., Coleman B., Sharma E., Conway K. P., Cummings K. M., Goniewicz M. L., et al. Correlates of transitions in tobacco product use by u.S. adult tobacco users between 2013–2014 and 2014–2015: Findings from the path study wave 1 and wave 2. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15.
  • Kinnunen J. M., Ollila H., Minkkinen J., Lindfors P. L., Timberlake D. S., Rimpela A. H. Nicotine matters in predicting subsequent smoking after e-cigarette experimentation: A longitudinal study among Finnish adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend 2019;201:182-7.
  • Kong G., Mayer M. E., Barrington-Trimis J. L., McConnell R., Leventhal A. M., Krishnan-Sarin S. Longitudinal associations between use and co-use of cigars and cigarettes: A pooled analysis of three adolescent cohorts. Drug Alcohol Depend 2019;201:45-8.
  • Larsen E., Rise J., Lund K. E. The relationship between snus use and smoking cognitions. Addict Res Theory 2012;20:447-55.
  • Lee P., Fry J. Investigating gateway effects using the PATH study. F1000Res 2019;8:264.
  • Miech R., Patrick M. E., O'Malley P. M., Johnston L. D. E-cigarette use as a predictor of cigarette smoking: results from a 1-year follow-up of a national sample of 12th grade students. Tobacco Control 2017;26:e106-e11.
  • Nowariak E. N. S., Lien R. K., Boyle R. G., Amato M. S., Beebe L. A. E-cigarette use among treatment-seeking smokers: Moderation of abstinence by use frequency. Addictive Behaviors 2018;77:137-42.
  • Pearson J. L., Stanton C. A., Cha S., Niaura R. S., Luta G., Graham A. L. E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Insights and Cautions From a Secondary Analysis of Data From a Study of Online Treatment-Seeking Smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 2015;17:1219-27.
  • Rigotti N. A., Chang Y., Tindle H. A., Kalkhoran S. M., Levy D. E., Regan S., et al. Association of E-Cigarette Use With Smoking Cessation Among Smokers Who Plan to Quit After a Hospitalization: A Prospective Study. Ann Intern Med 2018;168:613-20.
  • Russo C., Cibella F., Mondati E., Caponnetto P., Frazzetto E., Caruso M., et al. Lack of Substantial Post-Cessation Weight Increase in Electronic Cigarettes Users. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:23.
  • Shi Y., Pierce J. P., White M., Vijayaraghavan M., Compton W., Conway K., et al. E-cigarette use and smoking reduction or cessation in the 2010/2011 TUS-CPS longitudinal cohort. BMC Public Health 2016;16:1105.
  • Sweet L., Brasky T. M., Cooper S., Doogan N., Hinton A., Klein E. G., et al. Quitting Behaviors among Dual Cigarette/E-cigarette Users and Cigarette Smokers Enrolled in the Tobacco User Adult Cohort (TUAC). Nicotine Tob Res 2018;20:20.
  • Vickerman K. A., Carpenter K. M., Altman T., Nash C. M., Zbikowski S. M. Use of electronic cigarettes among state tobacco cessation quitline callers. Nicotine Tob Res 2013;15:1787-91.
  • Vickerman K. A., Schauer G. L., Malarcher A. M., Zhang L., Mowery P., Nash C. M. Reasons for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System use and smoking abstinence at 6 months: a descriptive study of callers to employer and health plan-sponsored quitlines. Tob Control 2017;26:126-34.
  • Wang M. P., Li W. H., Wu Y., Lam T. H., Chan S. S. Electronic cigarette use is not associated with quitting of conventional cigarettes in youth smokers. Pediatric Research 2017;82:14-8.
  • Young-Wolff K. C., Klebaner D., Folck B., Tan A. S. L., Fogelberg R., Sarovar V., et al. Documentation of e-cigarette use and associations with smoking from 2012 to 2015 in an integrated healthcare delivery system. Preventive Medicine 2018;109:113-8.
  • Zawertailo L., Pavlov D., Ivanova A., Ng G., Baliunas D., Selby P. Concurrent E-Cigarette Use During Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Primary Care Settings: Association With Smoking Cessation at Three and Six Months. Nicotine Tob Res 2017;19:183-9.

Risk of bias chart

Cohort studies

A1. Bias in selection of participants into the study
A2. Bias in classification of exposures
A3. Bias in measurement of outcomes
A4. Bias due to missing data
A5. Bias in the selection of the reported result

Risk of bias judgement
L= Low risk of bias
M= Moderate risk of bias
O=Unclear risk of bias
H= High risk of bias

Reference Overall bias A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Al-Delaimy W. K., Myers M. G., Leas E. C., Strong D. R., Hofstetter C. R. E-cigarette use in the past and quitting behavior in the future: a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health 2015;105:1213–9. M M L L H L
Aleyan S., Cole A., Qian W., Leatherdale S. T. Risky business: a longitudinal study examining cigarette smoking initiation among susceptible and non-susceptible e-cigarette users in Canada. BMJ Open 2018;8:e021080. M L L M L L
Araneda D., Korhonen T., Laatikainen T., Haukkala A., Rose R. J., Kaprio J. Association of snus experimentation in late adolescence with daily cigarette smoking in early adulthood: A longitudinal study among Finnish men. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2019:1403494819828868. M M L M M M
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Bello M. S., Liu F., Leventhal A. M., Kong G., Mayer M., et al. Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Cigarette and E-Cigarette Use Over Time Among Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2019;65:359–65. M O M L O M
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Kong G., Leventhal A. M., Liu F., Mayer M., Cruz T. B., et al. E-cigarette Use and Subsequent Smoking Frequency Among Adolescents. Pediatrics 2018;142. M M L L M L
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Leventhal A. M., Alonzo T. A., Cruz T. B., Urman R., Liu F., et al. Performance of cigarette susceptibility index among e-cigarette and hookah users. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2018;183:43–50. M L L M L L
Barrington-Trimis J. L., Urman R., Berhane K., Unger J. B., Cruz T. B., Pentz M. A., et al. E-Cigarettes and Future Cigarette Use. Pediatrics 2016;138:07. L L L M L L
Benmarhnia T., Pierce J. P., Leas E., White M. M., Strong D. R., Noble M. L., et al. Can E-Cigarettes and Pharmaceutical Aids Increase Smoking Cessation and Reduce Cigarette Consumption? Findings From a Nationally Representative Cohort of American Smokers. American Journal of Epidemiology 2018;187:2397–2404. L L L L L L
Berry K. M., Fetterman J. L., Benjamin E. J., Bhatnagar A., Barrington-Trimis J. L., Leventhal A. M., et al. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Subsequent Initiation of Tobacco Cigarettes in US Youths. JAMA Network Open 2019;2:e187794. M L M M L M
Berry K. M., Reynolds L. M., Collins J. M., Siegel M. B., Fetterman J. L., Hamburg N. M., et al. E-cigarette initiation and associated changes in smoking cessation and reduction: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, 2013–2015. Tobacco Control 2019;28:42–49. L L L L O L
Best C., Haseen F., Currie D., Ozakinci G., MacKintosh A. M., Stead M., et al. Relationship between trying an electronic cigarette and subsequent cigarette experimentation in Scottish adolescents: a cohort study. Tobacco Control 2017;22:22. M M M M M M
Biener L., Hargraves J. L. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use among a population-based sample of adult smokers: association with smoking cessation and motivation to quit. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2015;17:127–33. M L L L M L
Bold K. W., Kong G., Camenga D. R., Simon P., Cavallo D. A., Morean M. E., et al. Trajectories of e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use among youth. Pediatrics 2018;141:1–9. L M L L L L
Brose L. S., Hitchman S. C., Brown J., West R., McNeill A. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up. Addiction 2015;110:1160–8. M M M L M L
Buu A., Hu Y. H., Piper M. E., Lin H. C. The association between e-cigarette use characteristics and combustible cigarette consumption and dependence symptoms: Results from a national longitudinal study. Addictive Behaviors 2018;84:69–74. M L L L L L
Chaffee B. W., Watkins S. L., Glantz S. A. Electronic cigarette use and progression from experimentation to established smoking. Pediatrics 2018;141. M L L L M L
Chen J. C. Flavored E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Cessation-A Large National Study among Young Adult Smokers. Substance Use & Misuse 2018;53:201731. M L L L O L
Conner M., Grogan S., Simms-Ellis R., Flett K., Sykes-Muskett B., Cowap L., et al. Do electronic cigarettes increase cigarette smoking in UK adolescents? Evidence from a 12-month prospective study. Tobacco Control 2017;17:17. L L M L L L
Conner M., Grogan S., Simms-Ellis R., Flett K., Sykes-Muskett B., Cowap L., et al. Evidence that an intervention weakens the relationship between adolescent electronic cigarette use and tobacco smoking: a 24-month prospective study. Tobacco Control 2019;28:28. M O L L O L
Curry E., Nemeth J. M., Wermert A., Conroy S., Shoben A., Ferketich A. K., et al. A descriptive report of electronic cigarette use after participation in a community-based tobacco cessation trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:1359. M L L L O L
Doran N., Brikmanis K., Petersen A., Delucchi K., Al-Delaimy W. K., Luczak S., et al. Does e-cigarette use predict cigarette escalation? A longitudinal study of young adult non-daily smokers. Preventive Medicine 2017;100:27984. M M M L L L
East K., Hitchman S. C., Bakolis I., Williams S., Cheeseman H., Arnott D., et al. The Association Between Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Use in a Cohort of Young People. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;62:53947. L L L L H L
Flacco M. E., Ferrante M., Fiore M., Marzuillo C., La Vecchia C., Gualano M. R., et al. Cohort study of electronic cigarette use: Safety and effectiveness after 4 years of follow-up. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2019;23:40212. M L L M M M
Galanti M. R., Rosendahl I., Post A., Gilljam H. Early gender differences in adolescent tobacco use--the experience of a Swedish cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2001;29:3147. M L M M L L
Galanti M. R., Rosendahl I., Wickholm S. The development of tobacco use in adolescence among "snus starters" and "cigarette starters": an analysis of the Swedish "BROMS" cohort. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008;10:31523. M L M M L L
Gomajee R., El-Khoury F., Goldberg M., Zins M., Lemogne C., Wiernik E., et al. Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Reduction in France. JAMA Internal Medicine 2019;179:11931200. M L L O O L
Grana R. A., Popova L., Ling P. M. A longitudinal analysis of electronic cigarette use and smoking cessation. JAMA Internal Medicine 2014;174:8123. M M L L M L
Grotvedt L., Forsen L., Ariansen I., Graff-Iversen S., Lingaas Holmen T. Impact of snus use in teenage boys on tobacco use in young adulthood; a cohort from the HUNT Study Norway. BMC Public Health 2019;19:1265. M L L M H M
Grotvedt L., Forsen L., Stavem K., Graff-Iversen S. Patterns of snus and cigarette use: a study of Norwegian men followed from age 16 to 19. Tobacco Control 2013;22:382-8. M L M M H L
Hair E. C., Romberg A. R., Niaura R., Abrams D. B., Bennett M. A., Xiao H., et al. Longitudinal Tobacco Use Transitions Among Adolescents and Young Adults: 2014-2016. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;13:13. L L L L O L
Hammond D., Reid J. L., Cole A. G., Leatherdale S. T. Electronic cigarette use and smoking initiation among youth: a longitudinal cohort study. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal 2017;189:E1328E1336. M L L L H L
Harlow A. F., Stokes A., Brooks D. R. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Differences in E-Cigarette Uptake among Cigarette Smokers: Longitudinal Analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2019;21:138593. M L L M M L
Haukkala A., Vartiainen E., de Vries H. Progression of oral snuff use among Finnish 13-16-year-old students and its relation to smoking behaviour. Addiction 2006;101:5819. M L L M O L
Kasza K. A., Borek N., Conway K. P., Goniewicz M. L., Stanton C. A., Sharma E., et al. Transitions in Tobacco Product Use by U.S. Adults between 20132014 and 20142015: Findings from the PATH Study Wave 1 and Wave 2. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] 2018;15:09. M L L M O L
Kurti A. N., Bunn J. Y., Villanti A. C., Stanton C. A., Redner R., Lopez A. A., et al. Patterns of Single and Multiple Tobacco Product Use Among US Women of Reproductive Age. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:S71S80. M L M O O L
Leventhal A. M., Stone M. D., Andrabi N., Barrington-Trimis J., Strong D. R., Sussman S., et al. Association of e-Cigarette Vaping and Progression to Heavier Patterns of Cigarette Smoking. JAMA 2016;316:19181920. L L L M L M
Leventhal A. M., Strong D. R., Kirkpatrick M. G., Unger J. B., Sussman S., Riggs N. R., et al. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence. JAMA 2015;314:700-7. L L L M L L
Loukas A., Marti C. N., Cooper M., Pasch K. E., Perry C. L. Exclusive e-cigarette use predicts cigarette initiation among college students. Addictive Behaviors 2018;76:3437. L L L M L L
Lozano P., Arillo-Santillan E., Barrientos-Gutierrez I., Zavala-Arciniega L., Reynales-Shigematsu L. M., Thrasher J. F. E-cigarette use and its association with smoking reduction and cessation intentions among Mexican smokers. Salud Publica de Mexico 2019;61:27685. M M L L O L
Lozano P., Barrientos-Gutierrez I., Arillo-Santillan E., Morello P., Mejia R., Sargent J. D., et al. A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use and onset of conventional cigarette smoking and marijuana use among Mexican adolescents. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2017;180:42730. M L L L H L
Lundqvist G., Sandstrom H., Ohman A., Weinehall L. Patterns of tobacco use: a 10-year follow-up study of smoking and snus habits in a middle-aged Swedish population. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2009;37:1617. M O M M M L
Mantey D. S., Cooper M. R., Loukas A., Perry C. L. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students. American Journal of Health Behavior 2017;41:7509. M L L M H M
Manzoli L., Flacco M. E., Ferrante M., La Vecchia C., Siliquini R., Ricciardi W., et al. Cohort study of electronic cigarette use: effectiveness and safety at 24 months. Tobacco Control 2017;26:28492. M M M M M L
McMillen R., Klein J. D., Wilson K., Winickoff J. P., Tanski S. E-Cigarette Use and Future Cigarette Initiation Among Never Smokers and Relapse Among Former Smokers in the PATH Study. Public Health Reports 2019;134:52836. L L L L L L
Morgenstern M., Nies A., Goecke M., Hanewinkel R. E-cigarettes and the use of conventional cigarettes - A cohort study in 10th grade students in Germany. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 2018;115:2438. L L M L L L
Niaura R., Rich I., Johnson A. L., Villanti A. C., Romberg A. R., Hair E. C., et al. Young Adult Tobacco and E-cigarette Use Transitions: Examining Stability using Multi-State Modeling. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;01:01. M M M L M L
Norberg M., Lundqvist G., Nilsson M., Gilljam H., Weinehall L. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population: the role of snus, gender, age, and education. Glob Health Action 2011;4. M M L M M L
Pasquereau A., Guignard R., Andler R., Nguyen-Thanh V. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up. Addiction 2017;112:162028. M M M L M L
Penzes M., Foley K. L., Nadasan V., Paulik E., Abram Z., Urban R. Bidirectional associations of e-cigarette, conventional cigarette and waterpipe experimentation among adolescents: A cross-lagged model. Addictive Behaviors 2018;80:5964. M L M M M M
Piper M. E., Baker T. B., Benowitz N. L., Jorenby D. E. Changes in Use Patterns OVER ONE YEAR Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and electronic cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;06:06. M M L L M L
Primack B. A., Shensa A., Sidani J. E., Hoffman B. L., Soneji S., Sargent J. D., et al. Initiation of Traditional Cigarette Smoking after Electronic Cigarette Use Among Tobacco-Naive US Young Adults. American Journal of Medicine 2018;131:443.e1443.e9. M L L M M L
Primack B. A., Soneji S., Stoolmiller M., Fine M. J., Sargent J. D. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults. JAMA Pediatrics 2015;169:101823. M L L M M M
Selya A. S., Dierker L., Rose J. S., Hedeker D., Mermelstein R. J. The Role of Nicotine Dependence in E-Cigarettes' Potential for Smoking Reduction. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2018;20:12727. M M L L M L
Selya A. S., Rose J. S., Dierker L., Hedeker D., Mermelstein R. J. Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence. Addiction 2018;113:32533. M L L L M L
Spindle T. R., Hiler M. M., Cooke M. E., Eissenberg T., Kendler K. S., Dick D. M. Electronic cigarette use and uptake of cigarette smoking: A longitudinal examination of U.S. college students. Addictive Behaviors 2017;67:6672. L L L L L L
Stanton C. A., Bansal-Travers M., Johnson A. L., Sharma E., Katz L., Ambrose B. K., et al. Longitudinal e-Cigarette and Cigarette Use Among US Youth in the PATH Study (20132015). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019;111:108896. L L L L L L
Sutfin E. L., Reboussin B. A., Debinski B., Wagoner K. G., Spangler J., Wolfson M. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis. American Journal of Public Health 2015;105:e839. L M L L M L
Treur J. L., Rozema A. D., Mathijssen J. J. P., van Oers H., Vink J. M. E-cigarette and waterpipe use in two adolescent cohorts: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with conventional cigarette smoking. European Journal of Epidemiology 2018;33:32334. M O L L O L
Watkins S. L., Glantz S. A., Chaffee B. W. Association of noncigarette tobacco product use with future cigarette smoking among youth in the population assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study, 2013-2015. JAMA Pediatrics 2018;172:1817. L L L L M L
Weaver S. R., Huang J., Pechacek T. F., Heath J. W., Ashley D. L., Eriksen M. P. Are electronic nicotine delivery systems helping cigarette smokers quit? Evidence from a prospective cohort study of U.S. adult smokers, 2015-2016. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2018;13:e0198047. L L L L M L
Verplaetse T. L., Moore K. E., Pittman B. P., Roberts W., Oberleitner L. M., Peltier M. K. R., et al. Intersection of E-Cigarette Use and Gender on Transitions in Cigarette Smoking Status: Findings Across Waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2019;21:142328. M M L L H L
Wills T. A., Knight R., Sargent J. D., Gibbons F. X., Pagano I., Williams R. J. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii. Tobacco Control 2017;26:349. M L O L M L
Wills T. A., Sargent J. D., Gibbons F. X., Pagano I., Schweitzer R. E-cigarette use is differentially related to smoking onset among lower risk adolescents. Tobacco Control 2016;26:5349. M L O L M L
Zhuang Y. L., Cummins S. E., Sun J. Y., Zhu S. H. Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population. Tobacco Control 2016;25:i90i95. M M L L H M

 

RCT studies

1. Bias arising from the randomization process
2. Bias due to deviations from intended interventions
3. Bias due to missing outcome data
4. Bias in measurement of the outcome
5. Bias in the selection of the reported result

Risk of bias judgement
L= Low risk of bias
M= Moderate risk of bias
H= High risk of bias

Reference Overall bias 1. Bias arising from the randomization process 2. Bias due to deviations from intended interventions 3. Bias due to missing outcome data 4. Bias in measurement of the outcome 5. Bias in the selection of the reported result
Bullen C., Howe C., Laugesen M., McRobbie H., Parag V., Williman J., et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013;382:162937. M M M M L L
Carpenter M. J., Heckman B. W., Wahlquist A. E., Wagener T. L., Goniewicz M. L., Gray K. M., et al. A Naturalistic, Randomized Pilot Trial of E-Cigarettes: Uptake, Exposure, and Behavioral Effects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2017;26:17951803. M M M M L L
Hajek P., Phillips-Waller A., Przulj D., Pesola F., Myers Smith K., Bisal N., et al. A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 2019;380:62937. L L L L M L
Holliday R., Preshaw P. M., Ryan V., Sniehotta F. F., McDonald S., Bauld L., et al. A feasibility study with embedded pilot randomised controlled trial and process evaluation of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation in patients with periodontitis. Pilot & Feasibility Studies 2019;5:74. M L M M M L
Lee S. H., Ahn S. H., Cheong Y. S. Effect of Electronic Cigarettes on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Korean Male Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM 2019;32:56774. M M L L L L
Lee S. M., Tenney R., Wallace A. W., Arjomandi M. E-cigarettes versus nicotine patches for perioperative smoking cessation: a pilot randomized trial. PeerJ 2018;6:e5609. M L M L M L
Masiero M., Lucchiari C., Mazzocco K., Veronesi G., Maisonneuve P., Jemos C., et al. E-cigarettes May Support Smokers With High Smoking-Related Risk Awareness to Stop Smoking in the Short Run: Preliminary Results by Randomized Controlled Trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2019;21:11926. M L M M M L
O'Brien B., Knight-West O., Walker N., Parag V., Bullen C. E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial. Tobacco Induced Diseases 2015;13:5. L L M L L L
Walker N., Parag V., Verbiest M., Laking G., Laugesen M., Bullen C. Nicotine patches used in combination with e-cigarettes (with and without nicotine) for smoking cessation: a pragmatic, randomised trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2019;09:09. M L M M L L

Characteristics of included studies

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