CBT delivered by chat to people with depression or anxiety

Depression and anxiety syndroms are common mental health disorders. Persons suffering from depression or anxiety syndroms may be offered Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) as treatment. CBT can be delivered in face-to-face meetings with the therapist, as group therapy or via internet-based programs. Synchronous text message conversations, chat, are becoming increasingly popular in mental health interventions.

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SBU Enquiry Service

Consists of structured literature searches to highlight studies that can address questions received by the SBU Enquiry Service from Swedish healthcare or social service providers. We assess the risk of bias in systematic reviews and when needed also quality and transferability of results in health economic studies. Relevant references are compiled by an SBU staff member, in consultation with an external expert when needed.

Question

What scientific studies are there on CBT delivered by chat to people with depression or anxiety?

Identified literature

No relevant systematic review was identified in the literature search but seven systematic reviews have been listed as studies that may be of interest [1-7]. The systematic reviews have included six primary studies that are relevant to the question [8-13]. The primary studies have not been assessed for risk of bias.

References

  1. Cox KL, Allida SM, Hackett ML. Text messages to reduce depressive symptoms: Do they work and what makes them effective? A systematic review. Health Education Journal 2020.
  2. Garrido S, Millington C, Cheers D, Boydell K, Schubert E, Meade T, et al. What Works and What Doesn’t Work? A Systematic Review of Digital Mental Health Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Young People. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2019;10.
  3. Hoermann S, McCabe KL, Milne DN, Calvo RA. Application of Synchronous Text-Based Dialogue Systems in Mental Health Interventions: Systematic Review. [Review]. 2017;1:e267.
  4. Rathbone AL, Prescott J. The Use of Mobile Apps and SMS Messaging as Physical and Mental Health Interventions: Systematic Review. [Review]. 2017;1:e295.
  5. Senanayake B, Wickramasinghe SI, Chatfield MD, Hansen J, Edirippulige S, Smith AC. Effectiveness of text messaging interventions for the management of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of telemedicine and telecare 2019;25:513-523.
  6. Varker T, Brand RM, Ward J, Terhaag S, Phelps A. Efficacy of synchronous telepsychology interventions for people with anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adjustment disorder: A rapid evidence assessment. 2019;1:621-635.
  7. Watson T, Simpson S, Hughes C. Text messaging interventions for individuals with mental health disorders including substance use: A systematic review. Psychiatry Research 2016;243:255-262.
  8. Anstiss D, Davies A. ‘Reach Out, Rise Up’: The efficacy of text messaging in an intervention package for anxiety and depression severity in young people. Child Youth Serv Rev 2015;58:99-103.
  9. Kessler D, Lewis G, Kaur S, Wiles N, King M, Weich S, et al. Therapist-delivered Internet psychotherapy for depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374:628-34.
  10. Kramer J, Conijn B, Oijevaar P, Riper H. Effectiveness of a web-based solution-focused brief chat treatment for depressed adolescents and young adults: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2014;16:e141.
  11. Ranney ML, Pittman SK, Dunsiger S, Guthrie KM, Spirito A, Boyer EW, et al. Emergency department text messaging for adolescent violence and depression prevention: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychol Serv 2018;15:419-428.
  12. Whittaker R, Merry S, Stasiak K, McDowell H, Doherty I, Shepherd M, et al. MEMO--a mobile phone depression prevention intervention for adolescents: development process and postprogram findings on acceptability from a randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2012;14:e13.
  13. Whittaker R, Stasiak K, McDowell H, Doherty I, Shepherd M, Chua S, et al. MEMO: an mHealth intervention to prevent the onset of depression in adolescents: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2017;58:1014-1022.
Published: Report no: ut202107 Registration no: SBU 2020/710

Literature search

PsycINFO via EBSCO 5 November 2020

Text message based CBT for depression and anxiety

The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.

AB = Abstract; AU = Author; DE = Term from the thesaurus; MH= Exact Subject Heading from CINAHL Subject Headings; MM = Major Concept; TI = Title; TX = All Text. Performs a keyword search of all the database's searchable fields; ZC = Methodology Index; * = Truncation; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; N = Near Operator (N) finds the words if they are a maximum of x words apart from one another, regardless of the order in which they appear.; W = Within Operator (W) finds the words if they are within x words of one another, in the order in which you entered them.
  Search terms Items found
Population:
1. TI (acrophobi* or ”acute stress” or ”adjustment disorder*” or ”adjustment react*” or aerophobi* or ”affective disorder*” or agoraphobi* or anxiety* or anxieties or anxiodepressive or anxious* or arachnophobi* or ”attachment disorder*” or aviophobi* or bipolar or ”body dysmorphic disorder*” or ”body image disfunction*” or ”body image disorder*” or cyclophreni* or cyclothymi* or dentophobi* or depressed or depression or depressive or depressiveness or depressivity or dermatillomani* or ”disinhibited social engagement disorder*” or ”disruptive mood dysregulation disorder” or dysmorphophobi* or dysphoria or ”dysphori* disorder*” or ”dysphori* syndrom*” or dysthymi* or emetophobi* or ”excoriation disorder*” or GAD or glossophobi* or ”hair pulling” or hoarding or hypochondri* or hypomani* or mania* or manic* or MDD or melanchol* or ”mood disorder*” or mute or mutism or ”obsessive compulsive” or OCD or odontophobi* or ”olfactory reference syndrome*” or ”olfactory reference disorder*” or ophidiophobi* or panic or phobi* or ((posttrauma* or ”post trauma*”) N3 (disorder* or neuros* or psych* or stress* or symptom* or syndrom*)) or ”premenstrual syndrom*” or ”prolonged grief disorder*” or PTSD or ”reactive disorder*” or ”skin picking” or ”transient situational disturbance” or ”traumatic stress” or trichotillomani*)

OR AB (acrophobi* or ”acute stress” or ”adjustment disorder*” or ”adjustment react*” or aerophobi* or ”affective disorder*” or agoraphobi* or anxiety* or anxieties or anxiodepressive or anxious* or arachnophobi* or ”attachment disorder*” or aviophobi* or bipolar or ”body dysmorphic disorder*” or ”body image disfunction*” or ”body image disorder*” or cyclophreni* or cyclothymi* or dentophobi* or depressed or depression or depressive or depressiveness or depressivity or dermatillomani* or ”disinhibited social engagement disorder*” or ”disruptive mood dysregulation disorder” or dysmorphophobi* or dysphoria or ”dysphori* disorder*” or ”dysphori* syndrom*” or dysthymi* or emetophobi* or ”excoriation disorder*” or GAD or glossophobi* or ”hair pulling” or hoarding or hypochondri* or hypomani* or mania* or manic* or MDD or melanchol* or ”mood disorder*” or mute or mutism or ”obsessive compulsive” or OCD or odontophobi* or ”olfactory reference syndrome*” or ”olfactory reference disorder*” or ophidiophobi* or panic or phobi* or ((posttrauma* or ”post trauma*”) N3 (disorder* or neuros* or psych* or stress* or symptom* or syndrom*)) or ”premenstrual syndrom*” or ”prolonged grief disorder*” or PTSD or ”reactive disorder*” or ”skin picking” or ”transient situational disturbance” or ”traumatic stress” or trichotillomani*)

OR KW (acrophobi* or ”acute stress” or ”adjustment disorder*” or ”adjustment react*” or aerophobi* or ”affective disorder*” or agoraphobi* or anxiety* or anxieties or anxiodepressive or anxious* or arachnophobi* or ”attachment disorder*” or aviophobi* or bipolar or ”body dysmorphic disorder*” or ”body image disfunction*” or ”body image disorder*” or cyclophreni* or cyclothymi* or dentophobi* or depressed or depression or depressive or depressiveness or depressivity or dermatillomani* or ”disinhibited social engagement disorder*” or ”disruptive mood dysregulation disorder” or dysmorphophobi* or dysphoria or ”dysphori* disorder*” or ”dysphori* syndrom*” or dysthymi* or emetophobi* or ”excoriation disorder*” or GAD or glossophobi* or ”hair pulling” or hoarding or hypochondri* or hypomani* or mania* or manic* or MDD or melanchol* or ”mood disorder*” or mute or mutism or ”obsessive compulsive” or OCD or odontophobi* or ”olfactory reference syndrome*” or ”olfactory reference disorder*” or ophidiophobi* or panic or phobi* or ((posttrauma* or ”post trauma*”) N3 (disorder* or neuros* or psych* or stress* or symptom* or syndrom*)) or ”premenstrual syndrom*” or ”prolonged grief disorder*” or PTSD or ”reactive disorder*” or ”skin picking” or ”transient situational disturbance” or ”traumatic stress” or trichotillomani*)

OR (DE "Stress and Trauma Related Disorders" OR DE "Acute Stress Disorder" OR DE "Adjustment Disorders" OR DE "Attachment Disorders" OR DE "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder") OR (DE "Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder")) OR (DE "Complex PTSD" OR DE "DESNOS")) OR (DE "Anxiety" OR DE "Anxiety Sensitivity" OR DE "Computer Anxiety" OR DE "Health Anxiety" OR DE "Mathematics Anxiety" OR DE "Performance Anxiety" OR DE "Social Anxiety" OR DE "Speech Anxiety" OR DE "Test Anxiety")) OR (DE "Anxiety Disorders" OR DE "Castration Anxiety" OR DE "Death Anxiety" OR DE "Generalized Anxiety Disorder" OR DE "Obsessive Compulsive Disorder" OR DE "Panic Attack" OR DE "Panic Disorder" OR DE "Phobias" OR DE "Separation Anxiety Disorder" OR DE "Trichotillomania")) OR (DE "Hoarding Disorder" OR DE "Hoarding Behavior")) OR (DE "Acrophobia" OR DE "Agoraphobia" OR DE "Claustrophobia" OR DE "Ophidiophobia" OR DE "School Phobia" OR DE "Social Phobia")) OR (DE "Bipolar Disorder" OR DE "Bipolar I Disorder" OR DE "Bipolar II Disorder" OR DE "Cyclothymic Disorder" OR DE "Mania" OR DE "Hypomania")) OR (DE "Affective Disorders" OR DE "Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder" OR DE "Major Depression" OR DE "Anaclitic Depression" OR DE "Dysthymic Disorder" OR DE "Endogenous Depression" OR DE "Late Life Depression" OR DE "Postpartum Depression" OR DE "Reactive Depression" OR DE "Recurrent Depression" OR DE "Treatment Resistant Depression" OR DE "Seasonal Affective Disorder")) OR (DE "Atypical Depression")) OR (DE "Depression (Emotion)")) OR (DE "Body Dysmorphic Disorder")) OR (DE "Body Image Disturbances")) OR (DE "Hypochondriasis")) OR (DE "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder" OR DE "Premenstrual Syndrome")) OR (DE "Mutism" OR DE "Elective Mutism")) OR (DE "Panic")) OR (DE "Post-Traumatic Stress")
555 355
Intervention: Psychological treatment
2. TI ((ACT or (attention adj2 modification) or attention training or ((behavio* or cognitive) adj2 (activat* or component? or contracting or defusion or guidance or management or modif* or rehab* or restructur* or technique* or train*)) or CBT or Cognitive behavio* or DBT or dialectical behavio* or memory specificity training or mindfulness or "motivational interviewing" or ((self-care or selfcare or Self-help or selfhelp) adj3 (administered or guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised or tool*)) or ((self-administered or selfadministered) adj3 (guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised)) or self-management or support or therap* or treatment*))

OR AB ((ACT or (attention adj2 modification) or attention training or ((behavio* or cognitive) adj2 (activat* or component? or contracting or defusion or guidance or management or modif* or rehab* or restructur* or technique* or train*)) or CBT or Cognitive behavio* or DBT or dialectical behavio* or memory specificity training or mindfulness or "motivational interviewing" or ((self-care or selfcare or Self-help or selfhelp) adj3 (administered or guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised or tool*)) or ((self-administered or selfadministered) adj3 (guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised)) or self-management or support or therap* or treatment*))

OR KW ((ACT or (attention adj2 modification) or attention training or ((behavio* or cognitive) adj2 (activat* or component? or contracting or defusion or guidance or management or modif* or rehab* or restructur* or technique* or train*)) or CBT or Cognitive behavio* or DBT or dialectical behavio* or memory specificity training or mindfulness or "motivational interviewing" or ((self-care or selfcare or Self-help or selfhelp) adj3 (administered or guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised or tool*)) or ((self-administered or selfadministered) adj3 (guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised)) or self-management or support or therap* or treatment*))

OR TI (behavio* or cognitive)

OR (DE "Brief Psychotherapy" OR DE "Motivational Interviewing" OR DE "Mutual Storytelling Technique" OR DE "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy" OR DE "Reality Therapy" OR DE "Solution Focused Therapy" OR DE "Strategic Therapy" OR DE "Strategic Family Therapy" OR DE "Strategic Family Therapy" OR (DE "Behavior Modification" OR DE "Behavior Contracting" OR DE "Behavior Therapy" OR DE "Aversion Therapy" OR DE "Conversion Therapy" OR DE "Dialectical Behavior Therapy" OR DE "Exposure Therapy" OR DE "Implosive Therapy" OR DE "Reciprocal Inhibition Therapy" OR DE "Response Cost" OR DE "Systematic Desensitization Therapy" OR DE "Biofeedback Training" OR DE "Classroom Behavior Modification" OR DE "Contingency Management" OR DE "Token Economy Programs" OR DE "Fading (Conditioning)" OR DE "Omission Training" OR DE "Overcorrection" OR DE "Self-Management" OR DE "Self-Instructional Training" OR DE "Time Out")) OR (DE "Imaginal Exposure" OR DE "Implosive Therapy" OR DE "In Vivo Exposure" OR DE "Prolonged Exposure Therapy" OR DE "Systematic Desensitization Therapy" OR DE "Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy")) OR (DE "Cognitive Techniques" OR DE "Cognitive Restructuring" OR DE "Cognitive Therapy" OR DE "Self-Instructional Training")) OR (DE "Cognitive Behavior Therapy" OR DE "Acceptance and Commitment Therapy" OR DE "Cognitive Processing Therapy" OR DE "Prolonged Exposure Therapy")) OR (DE "Mindfulness-Based Interventions" OR DE "Mindfulness")) OR DE "Relaxation Therapy" OR DE "Progressive Relaxation Therapy")) OR (DE "Self-Help Techniques" OR DE "Self-Management" OR DE "Self-Instructional Training")) OR (DE "Anxiety Management"))
1 681 075
Intervention: Internet
3. TI (android or app or apps or blackberry or blended or cellphone or ((cell* or mobile or smart) N3 (phone* or telephone*)) or chat* or computer* or cyber* or digital or ”electronic mail*” or e-mail or email or ”handheld device*” or interactive or ”instant messag*” or internet* or ipad* or i-pad* or iphone* or i-phone* or messaging or ”mobile application*” or multimedia or multi-media or online* or on-line* or ”personal digital assistant*” or ”short messag*” or smartphone* or SMS or tablet* or technologyassisted or technology-assisted or technologybased or technology-based or technologydelivered or technology-delivered or technologysupported or technology-supported or ”text messag*” or texting or web or webbased or webdeliver* or website*)

OR (DE "Mobile Devices" OR DE "Mobile Phones" OR DE "Smartphones" OR DE "Tablet Computers" OR DE "Text Messaging" OR DE "Computer Mediated Communication" OR DE "Websites" OR DE "Internet" OR DE "Computer Applications" OR DE "Mobile Applications" OR DE "Teleconferencing")
128 979
Combined sets:
4. 1 and 3 and 4 5 321
Study types: systematic reviews/meta analyses
5. ( DE "Meta Analysis" OR ZC "systematic review" OR ZC "meta analysis" OR DE "Systematic Review" ) OR ( TX (systematic* N3 review*) OR TX (metaanaly* OR meta-analy* OR "meta analy*" ) ) OR ( TX ((systematic* n3 bibliographic*) OR (systematic* n3 literature) OR (comprehensive* n3 literature) OR (comprehensive* n3 bibliographic*) OR (integrative n3 review) OR (information n2 synthesis) OR (data n2 synthesis) OR (data n2 extract*)) OR JN ("Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews") )  
Limits: language, publication year
6. limiters Language: Danish, English, Norwegian, Swedish Published Date: 20130101-20201231  
Final 4 AND 5 AND 6 236

Cochrane Library via Wiley 8 November 2020

Text message based CBT for depression and anxiety

The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.

:au = Author; MeSH = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, including terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; this term only = Does not include terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; :ti = Title; :ab = Abstract; :kw = Keyword; * = Truncation; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; CDSR = Cochrane Database of Systematic Review; Cochrane Protocols = Protocols of systematic reviews registered in Cochrane Library; CENTRAL = Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, “trials”
  Search terms Items found
Population:
1. [mh ^"Adjustment disorders"] OR [mh Anxiety] OR [mh "Anxiety Disorders"] OR [mh "Bipolar and Related Disorders"] OR [mh ^"Body Dysmorphic Disorders"] OR [mh ^Depression] OR [mh ^Hoarding] OR [mh ^Hypochondriasis] OR [mh "Mood Disorders"] OR [mh Mutism] OR [mh ^Panic] OR [mh "Premenstrual Syndrome"] OR [mh "Psychological Trauma"] OR [mh ^"Reactive Attachment Disorder"] OR [mh ^"Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic"] OR [mh ^"Stress Disorders, Traumatic"] OR [mh ^"Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute"] OR [mh ^Trichotillomania] OR [mh ^"Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders"]

OR (acrophobi* or ”acute stress” or (adjustment next/1 disorder*) or (adjustment next/1 react*) or aerophobi* or (affective next/1 disorder*) or agoraphobi* or anxiety* or anxieties or anxiodepressive or anxious* or arachnophobi* or (attachment next/1 disorder*) or aviophobi* or bipolar or (body next/1 dysmorphic next/1 disorder*) or (body next/1 image next/1 disfunction*) or (body next/1 image next/1 disorder*) or cyclophreni* or cyclothymi* or dentophobi* or depressed or depression or depressive or depressiveness or depressivity or dermatillomani* or (disinhibited next/1 social next/1 engagement next/1 disorder*) or ”disruptive mood dysregulation disorder” or dysmorphophobi* or dysphoria or (dysphori* next/1 disorder*) or (dysphori* next/1 syndrom*) or dysthymi* or emetophobi* or (excoriation next/1 disorder*) or GAD or glossophobi* or ”hair pulling” or hoarding or hypochondri* or hypomani* or mania* or manic* or MDD or melanchol* or (mood next/1 disorder*) or mute or mutism or ”obsessive compulsive” or OCD or odontophobi* or (olfactory next/1 reference next/1 syndrome*) or (olfactory next/1 reference next/1 disorder*) or ophidiophobi* or panic or phobi* or ((posttrauma* or (post next/1 trauma*)) NEAR/3 (disorder* or neuros* or psych* or stress* or symptom* or syndrom*)) or (premenstrual next/1 syndrom*) or (prolonged next/1 grief next/1 disorder*) or PTSD or (reactive next/1 disorder*) or ”skin picking” or ”transient situational disturbance” or ”traumatic stress” or trichotillomani*):ti,kw
90 171
Intervention: Psychological treatment
2. [mh ^Counseling] OR [mh “Directive Counseling”] OR [mh ^Motivation] OR [mh Psychotherapy] OR [mh "Relaxation Therapy"] OR [mh ^"Self Care"] OR [mh ^"Self-Help Groups"] OR [mh ^"Self-Management"] OR [mh /TH] OR (behavio* or cognitive):ti

OR (ACT or (attention NEAR/2 modification) or ”attention training” or ((behavio* or cognitive) NEAR/2 (activat* or component or components or contracting or defusion or guidance or management or modif* or rehab* or restructur* or technique* or train*)) or CBT or (Cognitive next/1 behavio*) or DBT or (dialectical next/1 behavio*) or ”memory specificity training” or mindfulness or "motivational interviewing" or ((self-care or selfcare or Self-help or selfhelp) NEAR/3 (administered or guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised or tool*)) or ((self-administered or selfadministered) NEAR/3 (guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised)) or self-management or support or therap* or treatment*):ti,ab,kw
1 078 609
Intervention: Internet
3. [mh “Cell Phone”] OR [mh “Computers, Handheld”] OR [mh ^”Electronic Mail”] OR [mh ^Internet] OR [mh ^”Mobile Applications”] OR [mh ^Multimedia] OR [mh ^”Online Systems”] OR [mh ^Software] OR [mh Videoconferencing]

OR (android or app or apps or blackberry or blended or cellphone or ((cell* or mobile or smart) NEAR/3 (phone* or telephone*)) or chat* or Computer* or cyber* or digital or (electronic next/1 mail*) or e-mail or email or handheld-device* or Interactive or (instant next/1 messag*) or Internet* or ipad* or i-pad* or iphone* or i-phone* or messaging or (mobile next/1 application*) or Multimedia or multi-media or Online* or on-line* or (personal next/1 digital next/1 assistant*) or (short next/1 messag*) or Smartphone* or SMS or tablet* or technologyassisted or technology-assisted or technologybased or technology based or technologydelivered or technology-delivered or technologysupported or technology-supported or (text next/1 messag*) or texting or Web or webbased or webdeliver* or Website*):ti
37 105
Combined sets:
4. 1 and 3 and 4 3 511
Study types:
5. Cochrane reviews  
Limits: publication year
6. publication date 01/01/2013 to 31/12/2020  
Final 4 AND 5 AND 6 6

Embase via Elsevier 8 November 2020

Text message based CBT for depression and anxiety

The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.

/de = Term from the EMTREE controlled vocabulary; /exp = Includes terms found below this term in the EMTREE hierarchy; /mj = Major Topic; :ab = Abstract; :au = Author; :ti = Article Title; :ti,ab = Title or abstract; * = Truncation; ' ' = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; NEAR/n = Requests terms that are within 'n' words of each other in either direction; NEXT/n = Requests terms that are within 'n' words of each other in the order specified
  Search terms Items found
Population:
1. acrophobi*:ti,kw OR 'acute stress':ti,kw OR 'adjustment disorder*':ti,kw OR 'adjustment react*':ti,kw OR aerophobi*:ti,kw OR 'affective disorder*':ti,kw OR agoraphobi*:ti,kw OR anxiety*:ti,kw OR anxieties:ti,kw OR anxiodepressive:ti,kw OR anxious*:ti,kw OR arachnophobi*:ti,kw OR 'attachment disorder*':ti,kw OR aviophobi*:ti,kw OR bipolar:ti,kw OR 'body dysmorphic disorder*':ti,kw OR 'body image disfunction*':ti,kw OR 'body image disorder*':ti,kw OR cyclophreni*:ti,kw OR cyclothymi*:ti,kw OR dentophobi*:ti,kw OR depressed:ti,kw OR depression:ti,kw OR depressive:ti,kw OR depressiveness:ti,kw OR depressivity:ti,kw OR dermatillomani*:ti,kw OR 'disinhibited social engagement disorder*':ti,kw OR 'disruptive mood dysregulation disorder':ti,kw OR dysmorphophobi*:ti,kw OR dysphoria:ti,kw OR 'dysphori* disorder*':ti,kw OR 'dysphori* syndrom*':ti,kw OR dysthymi*:ti,kw OR emetophobi*:ti,kw OR 'excoriation disorder*':ti,kw OR gad:ti,kw OR glossophobi*:ti,kw OR 'hair pulling':ti,kw OR hoarding:ti,kw OR hypochondri*:ti,kw OR hypomani*:ti,kw OR mania*:ti,kw OR manic*:ti,kw OR mdd:ti,kw OR melanchol*:ti,kw OR 'mood disorder*':ti,kw OR mute:ti,kw OR mutism:ti,kw OR 'obsessive compulsive':ti,kw OR ocd:ti,kw OR odontophobi*:ti,kw OR 'olfactory reference syndrome*':ti,kw OR 'olfactory reference disorder*':ti,kw OR ophidiophobi*:ti,kw OR panic:ti,kw OR phobi*:ti,kw OR (((posttrauma* OR 'post trauma*') NEAR/3 (disorder* OR neuros* OR psych* OR stress* OR symptom* OR syndrom*)):ti,kw) OR 'premenstrual syndrom*':ti,kw OR 'prolonged grief disorder*':ti,kw OR ptsd:ti,kw OR 'reactive disorder*':ti,kw OR 'skin picking':ti,kw OR 'transient situational disturbance':ti,kw OR 'traumatic stress':ti,kw OR trichotillomani*:ti,kw

OR 'prolonged grief'/exp OR 'olfactory reference syndrome'/de OR 'excoriation disorder'/de OR 'disruptive mood dysregulation disorder'/de OR 'disinhibited social engagement disorder'/de OR 'dermatillomania'/exp OR 'trichotillomania'/de OR 'psychosocial disorder'/de OR 'psychotrauma'/exp OR 'premenstrual syndrome'/de OR

'mutism'/exp OR 'minor affective disorder'/de OR 'mania'/exp OR 'major affective disorder'/de OR 'mood disorder'/de OR 'hypochondriasis'/de OR 'hoarding'/de OR 'depression'/exp OR 'body dysmorphic disorder'/de OR 'anxiety disorder'/exp OR 'anxiety'/exp OR 'adjustment disorder'/de
902 334
Intervention: Psychological treatment
2. act:ti,ab,kw OR ((attention NEAR/2 modification):ti,ab,kw) OR 'attention training':ti,ab,kw OR (((behavio* OR cognitive) NEAR/2 (activat* OR component$ OR contracting OR defusion OR guidance OR management OR modif* OR rehab* OR restructur* OR technique* OR train*)):ti,ab,kw) OR cbt:ti,ab,kw OR 'cognitive behavio*':ti,ab,kw OR dbt:ti,ab,kw OR 'dialectical behavio*':ti,ab,kw OR 'memory specificity training':ti,ab,kw OR mindfulness:ti,ab,kw OR 'motivational interviewing':ti,ab,kw OR ((('self care' OR selfcare OR 'self help' OR selfhelp) NEAR/3 (administered OR guided OR instruct* OR strateg* OR supervised OR tool*)):ti,ab,kw) OR ((('self administered' OR selfadministered) NEAR/3 (guided OR instruct* OR strateg* OR supervised)):ti,ab,kw) OR 'self management':ti,ab,kw OR support:ti,ab,kw OR therap*:ti,ab,kw OR treatment*:ti,ab,kw

OR behavio*:ti OR cognitive:ti OR 'self help'/de OR 'self care'/de OR 'motivational interviewing'/de
220 078
Intervention: Internet
3. android:ti OR app:ti OR apps:ti OR blackberry:ti OR blended:ti OR cellphone:ti OR (((cell* OR mobile OR smart) NEAR/3 (phone* OR telephone*)):ti) OR chat*:ti OR computer*:ti OR cyber*:ti OR digital:ti OR 'electronic mail*':ti OR 'e mail':ti OR email:ti OR 'handheld device*':ti OR interactive:ti OR 'instant messag*':ti OR internet*:ti OR ipad*:ti OR 'i pad*':ti OR iphone*:ti OR 'i phone*':ti OR messaging:ti OR 'mobile application*':ti OR multimedia:ti OR 'multi media':ti OR online*:ti OR 'on line*':ti OR 'personal digital assistant*':ti OR 'short messag*':ti OR smartphone*:ti OR sms:ti OR tablet*:ti OR technologyassisted:ti OR 'technology assisted':ti OR technologybased:ti OR 'technology based':ti OR technologydelivered:ti OR 'technology delivered':ti OR technologysupported:ti OR 'technology supported':ti OR 'text messag*':ti OR texting:ti OR web:ti OR webbased:ti OR webdeliver*:ti OR website*:ti

OR 'software'/de OR 'online system'/de OR 'multimedia'/de OR 'mobile application'/exp OR 'internet'/de OR 'e-mail'/de OR 'personal digital assistant'/de OR 'mobile phone'/exp
633 439
Combined sets:
4. 1 and 3 and 4 10 966
Study types: systematic reviews/meta analyses
5. ((systematic* NEXT/3 (review* OR overview)):ti,ab) OR ((systematic* NEXT/3 bibliographic*):ti,ab) OR ((systematic* NEXT/3 literature):ti,ab) OR 'meta analy*':ti,ab OR metaanaly*:ti,ab OR [cochrane review]/lim OR 'meta analysis'/de OR 'systematic review'/de 485 799
Limits: language, publication year
6. ([danish]/lim OR [english]/lim OR [norwegian]/lim OR [swedish]/lim) AND [2013-2020]/py  
Final 4 AND 5 AND 6 581

Medline via OvidSP 5 November 2020

Text message based CBT for depression and anxiety

The final search result, usually found at the end of the documentation, forms the list of abstracts.

.ab. = Abstract; .ab,ti. = Abstract or title; .af. = All fields; Exp = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, including terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; .sh. = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary; .ti. = Title; / = Term from the Medline controlled vocabulary, but does not include terms found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; * = Focus (if found in front of a MeSH-term); * or $ = Truncation (if found at the end of a free text term); .mp = Text, heading word, subject area node, title; “ “ = Citation Marks; searches for an exact phrase; ADJn = Positional operator that lets you retrieve records that contain your terms (in any order) within a specified number (n) of words of each other.
  Search terms Items found
Population:
1. Adjustment Disorders/ or exp Anxiety/ or exp Anxiety Disorders/ or exp "Bipolar and Related Disorders"/ or Body Dysmorphic Disorders/ or Depression/ or Hoarding/ or Hypochondriasis/ or exp Mood Disorders/ or Mutism/ or Panic/ or exp Premenstrual Syndrome/ or exp Psychological Trauma/ or Reactive Attachment Disorder/ or Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/ or Stress Disorders, Traumatic/ or Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/ or Trichotillomania/ or "Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders"/

or (acrophobi* or acute stress or adjustment disorder* or adjustment react* or aerophobi* or affective disorder* or agoraphobi* or anxiety* or anxieties or anxiodepressive or anxious* or arachnophobi* or attachment disorder* or aviophobi* or bipolar or body dysmorphic disorder* or body image disfunction* or body image disorder* or cyclophreni* or cyclothymi* or dentophobi* or depressed or depression or depressive or depressiveness or depressivity or dermatillomani* or disinhibited social engagement disorder* or disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or dysmorphophobi* or dysphoria or dysphori* disorder* or dysphori* syndrom* or dysthymi* or emetophobi* or excoriation disorder* or GAD or glossophobi* or hair pulling or hoarding or hypochondri* or hypomani* or mania* or manic* or MDD or melanchol* or mood disorder* or mute or mutism or obsessive compulsive or OCD or odontophobi* or olfactory reference syndrome* or olfactory reference disorder* or ophidiophobi* or panic or phobi* or ((posttrauma* or post trauma*) adj3 (disorder* or neuros* or psych* or stress* or symptom* or syndrom*)) or premenstrual syndrom* or prolonged grief disorder* or PTSD or reactive disorder* or skin picking or transient situational disturbance or traumatic stress or trichotillomani*).ti,bt,ab,kf.
780 069
Intervention: Psychological treatment
2. exp Relaxation Therapy/ or Self Care/ or Self-Help Groups/ or Self-Management/ or (behavio* or cognitive).ti.

or (ACT or (attention adj2 modification) or attention training or ((behavio* or cognitive) adj2 (activat* or component? or contracting or defusion or guidance or management or modif* or rehab* or restructur* or technique* or train*)) or CBT or Cognitive behavio* or DBT or dialectical behavio* or memory specificity training or mindfulness or "motivational interviewing" or ((self-care or selfcare or Self-help or selfhelp) adj3 (administered or guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised or tool*)) or ((self-administered or selfadministered) adj3 (guided or instruct* or strateg* or supervised)) or self-management or support or therap* or treatment*).ti,bt,ab,kf.
7 565 083
Intervention: Internet
3. exp Cell Phone/ or exp Computers, Handheld/ or Electronic Mail/ or Internet/ or Mobile Applications/ or Multimedia/ or Online Systems/ or Software/

or (android or app or apps or blackberry or blended or cellphone or ((cell* or mobile or smart) adj3 (phone* or telephone*)) or chat* or computer* or cyber* or digital or electronic mail* or e-mail or email or handheld device* or interactive or instant messag* or internet* or ipad* or i-pad* or iphone* or i-phone* or messaging or mobile application* or multimedia or multi-media or online* or on-line* or personal digital assistant* or short messag* or smartphone* or SMS or tablet* or technologyassisted or technology-assisted or technologybased or technology-based or technologydelivered or technology-delivered or technologysupported or technology-supported or text messag* or texting or web or webbased or webdeliver* or website*).ti,bt.
374 488
Combined sets:
4. 1 and 2 and 3  
Study types: systematic reviews/meta analyses
5. (meta analysis or “systematic review”)  
Limits: language, publication year
6. (danish or english or norwegian or Swedish)  
7. (yr="2013 -Current")  
Final 4 AND 5 AND 6 AND 7 209
Page published