Laser Eye Surgery for the Correction of Refractive Errors

This document was published more than 2 years ago. The nature of the evidence may have changed.

Summary and Conclusions

Technology and target group

Surgery to correct refractive errors in the eye (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) has become increasingly common. Technology in the field has advanced rapidly, and new methods are continually emerging. Surgery is replacing other methods (mainly glasses and contact lenses) used to correct refractive errors. The results of surgery are compared with results achieved from using glasses. The goal of surgery is to enable young people to completely avoid using glasses or contact lenses, and to enable middle-aged and elderly people (whose natural lenses often no longer accommodate for different distances) to see at distance without using glasses or contact lenses. Many choose surgery for cosmetic reasons, or to avoid the inconvenience of using glasses and contact lenses. Others may choose surgery to facilitate their activities at work, in hobbies, or in sports.

Surgery for minor or moderate refractive errors (up to –6 diopters for myopia and up to +3.5 diopters for hyperopia) primarily involves methods that use an excimer laser to reshape the cornea, thereby changing its refractive power.

This evaluation addresses the three most common methods of excimer laser treatment. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) involves removing the surface corneal cells (epithelium) and using a laser to reshape the cornea. Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) involves loosening the surface epithelium and pushing it aside. Then, after the laser reshapes the cornea, the epithelium is placed back over the cornea. Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) involves two steps. First, a mechanical knife (keratome) is used to cut a flap of the outer surface. A laser then reshapes the cornea in the same way as in PRK. In Sweden, 6000 to 7000 operations are performed annually with excimer lasers.

Primary questions

  • What improvements in visual acuity can patients expect following refractive surgery?
  • How are other measures of visual quality affected?
  • What complications appear, how common are they, and what do they mean for the patient?
  • Which method is most cost-effective?

Patient benefit

Surgery for moderate myopia results in visual acuity of 0.5 or higher (without glasses) in 96% to 99% of cases. This is the level required for a driving license. For moderate hyperopia, the corresponding rate ranges from 87% to 97%. Full visual acuity (ie, 1.0 or higher) is achieved in 76% to 89% of cases in myopia and 48% to 80% of cases in hyperopia. At higher levels of refractive error the results are consistently worse and vary more among the methods. It is difficult to estimate how many of those receiving surgery will be completely free from using glasses since this is determined largely by the individual’s demand for visual acuity. Most never use glasses for distances, but some use them in more demanding situations, eg, night driving.

LASIK has the shortest rehabilitation time. Many patients report good vision on the day after surgery. However, it can take a few months for eyesight to stabilize following LASEK, and in some cases even longer following PRK. During the immediate postsurgical period, PRK and LASEK are associated with more problems than is LASIK. PRK and LASEK, in contrast to LASIK, can be used to treat higher levels of refractive error, although the outcomes are worse than in treating moderate refractive errors.

The more myopic a patient, the greater the risk for complications associated with surgery. This association is linear. In individuals with hyperopia, the risk for complications is substantially greater when the refractive error exceeds +3.5 diopters. Many of the complications are common to all three surgical methods and stem from the laser procedure itself. Haze in the cornea following surgery is more common after PRK and LASEK than after LASIK. With LASIK, the risk for complications is also associated with the mechanical knife used to cut the flap.

Effects of surgery on the patient’s quality of life have been studied, but mainly for LASIK. Over 90% are very satisfied or satisfied. Dissatisfied respondents usually complain about persistent refractive errors and problems with vision (or suffer from glare) in the dark. This is probably the case even with the other methods.

Table A summarizes the data on patient benefits in relation to each of the methods.

Table A Summary of data on patient benefits associated with PRK, LASEK, and LASIK.
Patient benefits PRK LASEK LASIK
Visual acuity (% with UCVA ≥0.5)
≤–6.0 D
>–6.0 D



≤+3.5 D
>+3.5 D



Visual acuity (% with UCVA ≥1.0)
≤–6.0 D
>–6.0 D



≤+3.5 D
>+3.5 D



Rehabilitation time A couple of months A couple of months A couple of days
Vision loss ≥2 lines on the eye chart (% of patients operated)
≤–6.0 D
>–6.0 D



≤+5 D
>+5 D



D = Diopters; UCVA = Uncorrected visual acuity

Ethical aspects

In most cases, refractive surgical procedures are performed in patients having satisfactory vision with glasses or contact lenses. The methods addressed above have good potential to improve uncorrected visual acuity (without assistive eyewear/devices), but this must be weighed against the risk of sight-impairing complications. Hence, it is important for patients to receive complete and objective information about benefits and risks, and have the opportunity to consult with their attending physician when deciding whether the expected benefit of treatment outweighs the risk for complications.

Economic aspects

Private physicians usually perform refractive surgery in healthy eyes, and patients themselves cover the full cost. The average price at the about 10 clinics that offer this type of surgery in Sweden is approximately 12 000 Swedish kronor (SEK), ranging between SEK 10 500 and SEK 14 500.

A Danish assessment found refractive surgery to be a cost-effective alternative to glasses/contact lenses for myopia, and even cost-saving in younger patients (aged 27 years). In patients around 35 years of age, the additional cost per year to avoid glasses through LASIK treatment is estimated at SEK 1000 to SEK 2000 for patients with the least myopia, and nearly double that amount for those with a higher degree of myopia. The corresponding costs associated with PRK are somewhat higher. However, these findings are relatively sensitive to change in the assumptions on price, etc.

SBU’s appraisal of the evidence

Assessments of three surgical methods to correct errors of refraction in the eye (PRK, LASEK, and LASIK) yield similar results in myopia up to –6 diopters. In 96% to 99% of the cases, surgery results in visual acuity of 0.5 or more in the operated eye. The corresponding results in hyperopia up to +3.5 diopters are 87.1% to 89.5% for PRK, 90.3% to 90.7% for LASEK, and 93.2% to 97% for LASIK. The percentages reaching full visual acuity (1.0 or more) are substantially lower. These conclusions are rated as Evidence Grade 1*.

The surgical procedures are associated with some risk for permanent side effects, eg, greater sensitivity to glare and increased contrast. Although many different complications have been reported, individually they are very uncommon. Vision loss (measured as two lines or more on the eye chart – a general measure of complications) is unusual with moderate errors of refraction. These conclusions are rated as Evidence Grade 1*.

There is insufficient* scientific evidence to draw firm conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of these methods. Considering treatment outcomes, complication risks, and surgical costs, LASIK would appear to be the most cost-effective. This, however, does not apply to high levels of refractive error.

*Criteria for Evidence Grading SBU’s Conclusions
Evidence Grade 1 – Strong Scientific Evidence. The conclusion is corroborated by at least two independent studies with high quality and internal validity, or a good systematic overview.
Evidence Grade 2 – Moderately Strong Scientific Evidence. The conclusion is corroborated by one study with high quality and internal validity, and at least two studies with medium quality and internal validity.
Evidence Grade 3 – Limited Scientific Evidence. The conclusion is corroborated by at least two studies with medium quality and internal validity.
Insufficient Scientific Evidence – No conclusions can be drawn when there are not any studies that meet the criteria for quality and internal validity.
Contradictory Scientific Evidence – No conclusions can be drawn when there are studies with the same quality and internal validity whose findings contradict each other.

This summary is based on a report prepared at SBU in collaboration with Prof. Per Fagerholm, Linköping University Hospital. It has been reviewed by Prof. Ulf Stenevi, University of Gothenburg. Project director: Ingemar Eckerlund, SBU.

The complete report is available only in Swedish.

SBU Alert is a service provided by SBU in collaboration with the Medical Products Agency, the National Board of Health and Welfare, and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions. 


  1. Murray A, Jones L, Milne A, Fraser C, Lourenço T, Burr J. A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of elective photorefractive surgery for the correction of refractive error. Review body for interventional procedures (ReBIP). Aberdeen, Scotland, 2005.
  2. Sakimoto T, Rosenblatt MI, Azar DT. Laser eye surgery for refractive errors. Lancet 2006;367(9520):1432-47.
  3. Conseil d’évaluation des technologies de la santé du Québec. The excimer laser in ophtalmology: A state-of-knowledge update (CÉTS 2000-2 RE). Montréal: CÉTS, 2000, xi- 103 p.
  4. Taneri S, Zieske JD, Azar DT. Evolution, techniques, clinical outcomes, and pathophysiology of LASEK: review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol 2004;49(6):576-602.
  5. Kim JK, Kim SS, Lee HK, Lee IS, Seong GJ, Kim EK et al. Laser in situ keratomileusis versus laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy for the correction of high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30(7):1405-11.
  6. Jabbur NS, Kraff C. Wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis using the WaveScan system for correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism: 6-month results in 277 eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(8):1493-501.
  7. Kohnen T, Buhren J, Kuhne C, Mirshahi A. Wavefront-guided LASIK with the Zyoptix 3.1 system for the correction of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism with 1-year follow-up: clinical outcome and change in higher order aberrations. Ophthalmology 2004;111(12):2175-85.
  8. Esquenazi S, Bui V, Bibas O. Surgical correction of hyperopia. Surv Ophthalmol 2006;51(4):381-418.
  9. Varley GA, Huang D, Rapuano CJ, Schallhorn S, Boxer Wachler BS, Sugar A. LASIK for hyperopia, hyperopic astigmatism, and mixed astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2004;111(8):1604-17.
  10. Nagy ZZ, Krueger RR, Hamberg-Nystrom H, Fust A, Kovacs A, Kelemen E et al. Photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia in 800 eyes with the Meditec MEL 60 laser. J Refract Surg 2001;17(5):525-33.
  11. Hjortdal JØ, Ehlers N, Møller-Pedersen T, Ehlers L, Kjellberg J. Refraktionskirurgi - en medicinsk teknologivurdering. København: Sundhedsstyrelsen, Center for evaluering og medicinsk teknologivurdering, 2004;4(2).
  12. Wroblewski KJ, Pasternak JF, Bower KS, Schallhorn SC, Hubickey WJ, Harrison CE et al. Infectious keratitis after photorefractive keratectomy in the United States army and navy. Ophthalmology 2006;113(4):520-5.
  13. Corbett MC, O’Brart DP, Warburton FG, Marshall J. Biologic and environmental risk factors for regression after photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology 1996;103(9):1381-91.
  14. el Danasoury MA, el Maghraby A, Klyce SD, Mehrez K. Comparison of photorefractive keratectomy with excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in correcting low myopia (from -2.00 to -5.50 diopters). A randomized study. Ophthalmology 1999;106(2):411-20; discussion 420-1.
  15. Winkler von Mohrenfels C, Huber A, Gabler B, Herrmann W, Kempe A, Donitzky C et al. Wavefront-guided laser epithelial keratomileusis with the wavelight concept system 500. J Refract Surg 2004;20(5):S565-9.
  16. Esquenazi S, Bui V. Long-term refractive results of myopic LASIK complicated with intraoperative epithelial defects. J Refract Surg 2006;22(1):54-60.
  17. Mirshahi A, Buhren J, Kohnen T. Clinical course of severe central epithelial defects in laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30(8):1636-41.
  18. Knorz MC. Flap and interface complications in LASIK. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2002;13(4):242-5.
  19. Moshirfar M, Welling JD, Feiz V, Holz H, Clinch TE. Infectious and noninfectious keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis Occurrence, management, and visual outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg 2007;33(3):474-83.
  20. Anderson NJ, Edelhauser HF, Sharara N, Thompson KP, Rubinfeld RS, Devaney DM et al. Histologic and ultrastructural findings in human corneas after successful laser in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120(3):288-93.
  21. Asano-Kato N, Toda I, Hori-Komai Y, Takano Y, Tsubota K. Epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis: clinical features and possible mechanisms. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134(6):801-7.
  22. Naoumidi I, Papadaki T, Zacharopoulos I, Siganos C, Pallikaris I. Epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis: a histopathologic study in human corneas. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121(7):950-5.
  23. Fagerholm P, Molander N, Podskochy A, Sundelin S. Epithelial ingrowth after LASIK treatment with scraping and phototherapeutic keratectomy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2004;82(6):707-13.
  24. Lahners WJ, Hardten DR, Lindstrom RL. Alcohol and mechanical scraping for epithelial ingrowth following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 2005;21(2):148-51.
  25. Spanggord HM, Epstein RJ, Lane HA, Candal EM, Klein SR, Majmudar PA et al. Flap suturing with proparacaine for recurrent epithelial ingrowth following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(5):916-21.
  26. Yeh DL, Bushley DM, Kim T. Treatment of traumatic LASIK flap dislocation and epithelial ingrowth with fibrin glue. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141(5):960-2.
  27. De Paiva CS, Chen Z, Koch DD, Hamill MB, Manuel FK, Hassan SS et al. The incidence and risk factors for developing dry eye after myopic LASIK. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141(3):438-45.
  28. Huang B, Mirza MA, Qazi MA, Pepose JS. The effect of punctal occlusion on wavefront aberrations in dry eye patients after laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137(1):52-61.
  29. Rad AS, Jabbarvand M, Saifi N. Progressive keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg 2004;20(5 Suppl):S718-22.
  30. Al-Swailem SA, Wagoner MD. Complications and visual outcome of LASIK performed by anterior segment fellows vs experienced faculty supervisors. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141(1):13-23.
  31. Tham VM, Maloney RK. Microkeratome complications of laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 2000;107(5):920-4.
  32. Epstein AJ, Clinch TE, Moshirfar M, Schanzlin DJ, Volpicelli M. Results of late flap removal after complicated laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(3):503-10.
  33. Sharma N, Ghate D, Agarwal T, Vajpayee RB. Refractive outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis after flap complications. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(7):1334-7.
  34. Choi RY, Wilson SE. Hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis: primary and secondary treatments are safe and effective. Cornea 2001;20(4):388-93.
  35. Shortt AJ, Bunce C, Allan BD. Evidence for superior efficacy and safety of LASIK over photorefractive keratectomy for correction of myopia. Ophthalmology 2006;113(11):1897-908.
  36. Hammer T, Heynemann M, Naumann I, Duncker GI. [Correction and induction of high-order aberrations after standard and wavefront-guided LASIK and their influence on the postoperative contrast sensitivity]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2006;223(3):217-24.
  37. Lee HK, Choe CM, Ma KT, Kim EK. Measurement of contrast sensitivity and glare under mesopic and photopic conditions following wavefront-guided and conventional LASIK surgery. J Refract Surg 2006;22(7):647-55.
  38. Tuan KM, Chernyak D. Corneal asphericity and visual function after wavefront-guided LASIK. Optom Vis Sci 2006;83(8):605-10.
  39. Tuan KM, Liang J. Improved contrast sensitivity and visual acuity after wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis: in-depth statistical analysis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32(2):215-20.
  40. Tran DB, Sarayba MA, Bor Z, Garufis C, Duh YJ, Soltes CR et al. Randomized prospective clinical study comparing induced aberrations with IntraLase and Hansatome flap creation in fellow eyes: potential impact on wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(1):97-105.
  41. Montes-Mico R, Rodriguez-Galietero A, Alio JL. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical keratome LASIK for myopia. Ophthalmology 2007;114(1):62-8.
  42. Lim T, Yang S, Kim M, Tchah H. Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141(5):833-9.
  43. Netto MV, Dupps W, Jr, Wilson SE. Wavefront-guided ablation: evidence for efficacy compared to traditional ablation. Am J Ophthalmol 2006;141(2):360-8.
  44. Wang IJ, Sun YC, Lee YC, Hou YC, Hu FR. The relationship between anterior corneal aberrations and contrast sensitivity in conventional LASIK. Curr Eye Res 2006;31(7-8):563-8.
  45. Ueda T, Nawa Y, Masuda K, Ishibashi H, Hara Y, Uozato H. Relationship between corneal aberrations and contrast sensitivity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2006;50(2):147-52.
  46. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia and astigmatism. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 1999;106(2):422-37.
  47. Williams DK. One-year results of laser vision correction for low to moderate hyperopia. Ophthalmology 2000;107(1):72-5.
  48. Jabbur NS, Sakatani K, O’Brien TP. Survey of complications and recommendations for management in dissatisfied patients seeking a consultation after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30(9):1867-74.
  49. Shortt AJ, Allan BDS. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) versus laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005135. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005135.pub2.
  50. O’Doherty M, Kirwan C, O’Keeffe M, O’Doherty J. Postoperative pain following epi-LASIK, LASEK, and PRK for myopia. J Refract Surg 2007;23(2):133-8.
  51. Lee HK, Lee KS, Kim JK, Kim HC, Seo KR, Kim EK. Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139(1):56-63.
  52. Pirouzian A, Thornton JA, Ngo S. A randomized prospective clinical trial comparing laser subepithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122(1):11-6.
  53. Saleh TA, Almasri MA. A comparative study of post-operative pain in laser epithelial keratomileusis versus photorefractive keratectomy. Surgeon 2003;1(4):229-32.
  54. Schwartz AR, Tinio BO, Esmail F, Babayan A, Naikoo HN, Asbell PA. Ten-year follow-up of 360 degrees intrastromal corneal rings for myopia. J Refract Surg 2006;22(9):878-83.
  55. Twa MD, Hurst TJ, Walker JG, Waring GO, Schanzlin DJ. Diurnal stability of refraction after implantation with intracorneal ring segments. J Cataract Refract Surg 2000;26(4):516-23.
  56. Zaldivar R, Oscherow S, Ricur G. The STAAR posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens. Int Ophthalmol Clin 2000;40(3):237-44.
  57. Dick HB, Tehrani M. [Phakic intraocular lenses. Current status and limitations]. Ophthalmologe 2004;101(3):232-45.
  58. Olson RJ, Werner L, Mamalis N, Cionni R. New intraocular lens technology. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;140(4):709-16.
  59. Lovisolo CF, Reinstein DZ. Phakic intraocular lenses. Surv Ophthalmol 2005;50(6):549-87.
  60. Kohnen T, Kasper T, Terzi E. [Intraocular lenses for the correction of refraction errors. Part II. Phakic posterior chamber lenses and refractive lens exchange with posterior chamber lens implantation]. Ophthalmologe 2005;102(11):1105-17; quiz 1118-9.
  61. Chang DH, Davis EA. Phakic intraocular lenses. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006;17(1):99-104.
  62. Leccisotti A. Bioptics: where do things stand? Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006;17(4):399-405.
  63. Ruckhofer J, Twa MD, Schanzlin DJ. Clinical characteristics of lamellar channel deposits after implantation of intacs. J Cataract Refract Surg 2000;26(10):1473-9.
  64. Twa MD, Karpecki PM, King BJ, Linn SH, Durrie DS, Schanzlin DJ. One-year results from the phase III investigation of the KeraVision Intacs. J Am Optom Assoc 1999;70(8):515-24.
  65. Twa MD, Ruckhofer J, Shanzlin DJ. Surgically induced astigmatism after implantation of intacs intrastromal corneal ring segments. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001;27(3):411-5.
  66. Schwartz AP, Tinio BO, Babayan A, Naikoo HN, Roberts B, Asbell PA. Intrastromal corneal ring implantation (360 degrees ring) for myopia: a 5-year follow-up. Eye Contact Lens 2006;32(3):121-3.
  67. Asbell PA, Ucakhan OO, Abbott RL, Assil KA, Burris TE, Durrie DS et al. Intrastomal corneal ring segments: reversibility of refractive effect. J Refract Surg 2001;17(1):25-31.
  68. Holmes-Higgin DK, Burris TE, Lapidus JA, Greenlick MR. Risk factors for self-reported visual symptoms with Intacs inserts for myopia. Ophthalmology 2002;109(1):46-56.
  69. Asbell PA, Ucakhan OO. Long-term follow-up of Intacs from a single center. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001;27(9):1456-68.
  70. Gonvers M, Bornet C, Othenin-Girard P. Implantable contact lens for moderate to high myopia: relationship of vaulting to cataract formation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003;29(5):918-24.
  71. Baumeister M, Buhren J, Schnitzler EM, Ohrloff C, Kohnen T. [Scheimpflug photographic imaging following implantation of anterior and posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses: preliminary results]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2001;218(2):125-30.
  72. Abela-Formanek C, Kruger AJ, Dejaco-Ruhswurm I, Pieh S, Skorpik C. Gonioscopic changes after implantation of a posterior chamber lens in phakic myopic eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001;27(12):1919-25.
  73. Garcia-Feijoo J, Hernandez-Matamoros JL, Mendez-Hernandez C, Castillo-Gomez A, Lazaro C, Martin T et al. Ultrasound biomicroscopy of silicone posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003;29(10):1932-9.
  74. Garcia-Feijoo J, Hernandez-Matamoros JL, Castillo-Gomez A, Lazaro C, Mendez-Hernandez C, Martin T et al. High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of silicone posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for hyperopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003;29(10):1940-6.
  75. Eleftheriadis H, Amoros S, Bilbao R, Teijeiro MA. Spontaneous dislocation of a phakic refractive lens into the vitreous cavity. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30(9):2013-6.
  76. Baumeister M, Buhren J, Kohnen T. Position of angle-supported, iris-fixated, and ciliary sulcus-implanted myopic phakic intraocular lenses evaluated by Scheimpflug photography. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138(5):723-31.
  77. Hoyos JE, Cigales M, Hoyos-Chacon J. Zonular dehiscence two years after phakic refractive lens (PRL) implantation. J Refract Surg 2005;21(1):13-7.
  78. Edelhauser HF, Sanders DR, Azar R, Lamielle H. Corneal endothelial assessment after ICL implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004;30(3):576-83.
  79. Vetter JM, Tehrani M, Dick HB. Surgical management of acute angle-closure glaucoma after toric implantable contact lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32(6):1065-7.
  80. Sarikkola AU, Sen HN, Uusitalo RJ, Laatikainen L. Traumatic cataract and other adverse events with the implantable contact lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005;31(3):511-24.
  81. Sanders DR. Postoperative inflammation after implantation of the implantable contact lens. Ophthalmology 2003;110(12):2335-41.
  82. Colin J, Robinet A, Cochener B. Retinal detachment after clear lens extraction for high myopia: seven-year follow-up. Ophthalmology 1999;106(12):2281-4; discussion 2285.
  83. Moshirfar M, Whitehead G, Beutler BC, Mamalis N. Toxic anterior segment syndrome after Verisyse iris-supported phakic intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32(7):1233-7.
  84. Tahzib NG, Eggink FA, Frederik PM, Nuijts RM. Recurrent intraocular inflammation after implantation of the Artiflex phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high myopia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32(8):1388-91.
Download summary

SBU Assessment presents a comprehensive, systematic assessment of available scientific evidence. The certainty of the evidence for each finding is systematically reviewed and graded. Full assessments include economic, social, and ethical impact analyses.

SBU assessments are performed by a team of leading professional practitioners and academics, patient/user representatives and SBU staff. Prior to approval and publication, assessments are reviewed by independent experts, SBU’s Scientific Advisory Committees and Board of Directors.

Published: 12/4/2007
Contact SBU:
Report no: 2007-04